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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A _____ i a single unit of heredity.
gene
genes are located on _____.
chromosomes
a _______ is a single molecule of dna.
chromosome
the sum total of chromosomes/dna makes up the _____
genome
the genome dictates all the _______ properties of that species.
inherent.
Humans are (diploid/haploid)?
diploid
Haploid organisms contain only one copy of each _______.
chromosome
DNA is a double helix. (T/F)
T
______ are the functional regions of DNA.
genes
THe pehenomona whereby the # of chromosomes do not reflect the complexity of organisms is known as
The K-value paradox.
Homo sapiens have __ chromosomes.
46
Homosapeiens have ____ chromosome pairs.
23
Male humans have a
___ and a ___ sex chromosome.
X & Y
Females have a _ and a _ sex chromosome.
X & X
Mendels work took place in _____.
1860
Mendel's work was ignored until ____.
the turn of the 19/20th century.
the ____ ____ generation is the progeny from the cross of true breeding parents.
first filial
The first filial generation is designated
F1
the first filial generation is _____
all dominant
the parental generation is designated
P
In the ___ ____ generation, F1 individuals are crossed to each other.
second filial
the second filial generation is designated ___.
F2
Genotypicaly, the F2 generation is __:__
1:2:1
Phenotypically, the F2 generation is _:_
3:1
If an event is certain to happen, its prob is _
1
If an event cannot happen, its prop is ___
0
If it is simply possible but not certain that a event will happen, its prop is...
between 0 and 1
the probability that two independent events will both happen is found by ...
multiply the probabilities of the individual events.
A monohybrid self cross would be __x__.
Ss x Ss
In a monohybrid self cross, the probabilty of a gamete being S is __
1/2
In a monohybrid self cross, the prob that an F2 plant will be SS is __
1/4 (1/2 x 1/2)
In a monohybrid self cross, the prob that an F2 plant will be ss is __
1/4 (1/2 x 1/2)
The rule of the ______ states: The probability that any two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their probabilities
the rule of product
The rule of the ____ states: The probability that either of two mutually exclusive events will occur is the sum of their individual probabilities.
the rule of the sum
The probability that any two or more ______ events will occur together is the product of their probabilities
independent
The probability that either of two ______ events will occur is the sum of their individual probabilities.
mutually exclusive
The probability of an event that can occur in two or more different ways is found by ...
the sum of the individual probabilities of each of those ways.
In a monohybrid cross a genotype of Ss can occur ___ different ways.
2.
S in the female gamete (egg) and s in the male gamete (sperm) = Ss = 1/4
OR
s in the female gamete (egg) and S in the male gamete (sperm) = sS = 1/4
Thus the probability of heterozygotes (Ss) in the F2 generation of a monohybrid cross is
P(Ss) = Ss + sS = 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2
1/2
(Ss + sS = 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2)
Law of _____ states : Alleles that define traits segregate in the next division.
segregation
Alleles that define traits _______ in the next division.
segregation
If a SU x ss cross produces 4 dominantly phenotyed results, then the U gamete must be a _.
S
If an SU x ss cross takes place and the phenotype shows 2 dominant and two recessive then the U gamete is a ___.
S
A test cross is the cross of an unknown genotype and a _________.
Homozygous recessive
In a test cross, if the unknown is homozygous the phenotypic ratio will be ___:___.
1:0
In a test cross, if the unknown is heterozygous the phenotypic ratio will be ___:___.
1:1
A dihybrid cross is a cross considering ____ _____.
2 characters (such as SsYy x SsYy)
A dihybrid cross of SsYy x SsYy, will show _:_.
9:3:3:3 (F2)
For the out come of a ___ ____, multiply the outcomes from each of the individual monohybrid components.
Dihybrid cross
In a dihybrid cross, SsYy x SsYy, what is the probability of SSYy?
1/8 ( SS= 1/4; Yy = 1/2, so 1/4 x 1/2 = 1/8)
Hybrids between two ________ characters in relation to one trait (F1) were always identical with one of the parents.
Contrasting
When two traits are considered, each trait behaves ______ of each other during crosses.
Independently
Law of _______ : Alternative trait forms (alleles) of a specific trait which come together in offspring separate when producing gametes.
Segregation
Law of _____: Hybrids between two alternative forms of a trait resembles one of the parental types which is considered to be dominant over the other parental type which is by definition the recessive form.
dominance.
A _____ cross involves one character (seed shape) and 2 different traits (spherical or wrinkled).
Monohybrid
The units responsible for inheritance are discrete particles that exist within an organism in pairs and separate during gamete formation; this is called the ________ ______.
Particulate theory.
During _______, only one of the pair for a given character passes to the gamete.
Gamete production
When ________ occurs, the zygote gets one unit from each parent, restoring the pair.
Fertilization
Mendel’s second law: _______.
The law of independent assortment.
The law of independent assortment: alleles of different genes (e.g., Ss and Yy ) assort into gametes independently of each other (T/F).
T
The dihybrid SsYy produces four possible gametes that have one allele of each gene: __, __, __, and __.
SY, Sy, sY, and sy.
Because humans cannot be studied using planned crosses, human geneticists rely on _____, which show phenotype segregation in several generations of related individuals.
Pedigrees
Because humans cannot be studied using planned crosses, human geneticists rely on _____, which show phenotype segregation in several generations of related individuals. Pedigrees
Pedigrees
Human pedigrees show clear proportions (T/F).
F
Square is the m/f symbol?
Male
Circle is the m/f symbol?
Female
Diamond is ____.
Sex unspecified
Double mating line is _____.
Consanguineous mating
Diagonal line is ____.
Death
Dizygotic twins are identical/ nonidentical?
Nonidentical
Monozygotic twins show a _____.
Line of connection
Colored in means ____.
Affected individual
Who loves you more than anything?
Blair ruth Wallace
Different alleles exist because any gene is subject to ______ into a stable, heritable new form.
Mutation
The most common allele in the population is called the _____.
Wild type
Other alleles, often called _____, may produce a phenotype different from that of the wild-type allele.
Mutant alleles
A genetic locus is considered ______ if the wild-type allele has a frequency of less than 99 percent in a population.
Polymorphic
A genetic locus is considered polymorphic if the wild-type allele has a frequency of less than ___ percent in a population.
99%
_____ Disorder: phenotype is determined by the recessive allele which is masked by the dominant allele.
Recessive
Horizontal pattern of inheritance indicates a rare ______ ______.
Recessive trait
Albinism is an _____ _____ disorder.
Autosomal recessive
In a autosomal recessive disorder the Aa is not a carrier (T/F)?
F
In an Autosomal recessive disorder parents of affected individuals are ______.
Carriers
In an autosomal recessive disorder, both grandparents on each side must be a carrier (T/F)?
F, only one grandparent from both sides must be a carrier.
In a autosomal recessive disorder, unaffected siblings must have two normal alleles (T/F)?
F, only one.
In a autosomal recessive disorder, unrelated grandparents are likely to be ______ _________.
Homozygous normal
A vertical pattern of inheritance indicates a _____.
Rare dominant trait
Central Dogma of genetics: One gene – One _____ – One function – One _______.
Protein, phenotype
Brown eyes and blue eyes represent two different forms of the eye color phenotypes resulting from two different _____ of the eye color _____.
Alleles, gene.
Different genes exhibit large/ small differences in their DNA sequence, functions and traits they specify.
Large
Different alleles exhibit large/ small differences in their DNA sequence, functions and traits they specify.
Small (i.e. different by one base)
Mendel’s units of inheritance are now called _____.
Gene
Different forms of a gene are called ______.
Alleles