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### 14 Cards in this Set

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 what are the three objective of chi square? 1. determine if experimental data constitutes a good fit to an expected ratio or value 2. to interpret a chi square value in terms of probability of an event occurring 3. to identify the null and alternative hypothesis when using a chi square test why do we use a chi square? it is used to provide an estimate of the probability that an observed value did or did not occur by chance alone. what would be the question in the case of the bird case? were the observed value due to chance occurrence or is there actually a difference in the gender ration of the bird? what is the formula? SUM OF (OBSERVED MINUS EXPECTED)SQUARED DIVIDED BY EXPECTED what p value is generally the cut off between values that are significant and non significant ? .05 p stands for.. probability .5 and .7 is greater that .05 therefore what can we say? not significant therefore due to normal chance and is not due to some other force since the ratio of 48:52 is not significantly different than a ratio of 50:50 null hypothesis there is no significant difference between the observed and expected values the variability we observed in coin tossing is due to chance since our values are not significantly different alternative hypothesis there is a significant different between the observed and expected values the variability we observed in coin tossing is due to some other factor since our values are significantly different why are corn ears excellent models for mendelian genetics? because each kernel represents an independent crossing event therefore each corn ear represents 100s of independent crossings mendel's law of random segregation: 3 things 1. diploid germ line cells of sexually reproducing species contain two copies of almost every chromosomal gene 2. the two copies are located on members of a homologous chromosome pair 3. during meiosis, the two copies separate, so that a gamete receives only one copy of each gene random segregation can be demonstrated by a monohybrid cross according to the law the random segration, each female gamete receives one copy of R allele when it is formed from meiosis each pollen gram or male gamete receives the r allele there fore the offspring of the cross must be heterozygous mendels law of independent assortment when the alleles of two different genes separate during they do so independently of one another