Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
stings of nucleotide bases that code for a particular portein. they come in multiple versions called aleles. they are located on chromosomes. roughtly 25,000. spread out over 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes in all). we inherit 23 chromosomes from each parent. MtDNA inherited mainly from mother. each code for about 3 different protein.
alternate forms of a gene. Usually they are either dominant or recessive.
the way a person looks (the outcome of a particular genotype),
the collection of genes that produces phenotype
occurs when nucleotide base is coded incorrectly, thus changing the sequence. cause a change in the portein prodcued by a particular gene. they are at the heart of evloutionary change. most are letha, others lead to serious genetic diseases. they are rarely beneficial, can also be neutral. most cause a miscarriage before the woman even knows she is pregnant
environmental influence
genes interact w/ the environment to produce changes in protein production. they can be turned on or off, meaning that environmental pressures and condtiions are as important for understanding pheotypic expression as the genotype of an organism. environmental pressures can chnage how a gene is expressed or whether it is expressed at all.
stages of policy process
1. agenda setting- get it on the calandar (crisis, public demand, internal leadership, media)
2. Formulation- consider you options. brainstorm think thanks, scientists
3. adoption-what option will you use. decided on action
4. implementation- fuding, use it ( things fall flat here)
5. evaluation- govt is weak here. Is it working? unexpected side effects?
4 major ways policys are created
1. interest group
2. rational choice
3. elite
4. institional
interest groups
control politicans and agencies. push things on the agenda through force, become entangled throught the iron triangle theory
rational choice
people decide what is supposed to be and do it.
scientists and other control policy and push it through the polic making process
policy comes out of the way institutes are formed.
4 policy makers
legislative- can make things law, can ban things
administrative/burocracy- interest groups, professional organizing, political parties, think tank, media citizen
judicial-interpret the law
executive branch president, VP, executive offices agencies (USDA, EPA, FDA)
Gene Therapy Trials
Jesse Gelsinger (1999) . Genetic condition liver cant filter amonia out of boold fatal. needs gene therapy. somatic cell. they were worried that it would affect the germ cell He died and his father sued the university that did it. empty virus and load it w/ DNA.
in Paris a patient came down w/ a lukemia like condition UK kept going w/ trila and it it hit coding DNA not X chromosome USK banned it. Now gene therapy is allowed but there is no federal fuding for it.
4 policy makers
legislative- can make things law, can ban things
administrative/burocracy- interest groups, professional organizing, political parties, think tank, media citizen
judicial-interpret the law
executive branch president, VP, executive offices agencies (USDA, EPA, FDA)
Gene Therapy Trials
Jesse Gelsinger (1999) . Genetic condition liver cant filter amonia out of boold fatal. needs gene therapy. somatic cell. they were worried that it would affect the germ cell He died and his father sued the university that did it. empty virus and load it w/ DNA.
in Paris a patient came down w/ a lukemia like condition UK kept going w/ trila and it it hit coding DNA not X chromosome USK banned it. Now gene therapy is allowed but there is no federal fuding for it.
issues w/ gene therapy
saftey- individual and societal
equality- do people have equal access to the tech.
liberty- peop from other countires who have vanned it will travel to the US for the procedure
larger societal concern- if only rich can afford it, only rich will get it.
you can understand somthing by reducing it to its parts. life can be broken down into chemcials and processes.
Things are set in stone, you are just reading the script
disliked by religious officals. when you take away all peices Watson says there is nothing left. Judaeo-Christians believe there is a soul and free will. rights may be effective--everyones equal..not accouridng to our genes. these were considered dangerous thoughts.
public making decisions
accountable only to themselves
impassioned responses
tyranny of the majority
democratic value
elected officals making decisions
accountable to public
more access to experts
expert influence
appointed officals making decisions
more knowledge
not accountable to public
scientists making decisions
least influence fomr the masses
political-need funding
tunnel vision
different values
has its benefits, manufactoring crops. dont repeat historical mistakes. Francis Galton, Darwins cousin coined the term eu-good. society was said to benefit b/c intelligent people reproduce. assumputions were based on false science (feebleminded), individual choice/free will, unexpected side effects (disease) less genetic diversity (weak genes), slippery slope. BC- eugenic based
Eugenic policies
Promoting BC. Hitler promoted the abortion of Jewish babies
Restricting immigration
chinese exlcuison act (1887)
Loughlin immimgration act of 1924, quotas on jews and italian immigrants.
Buck v. Bell
carrie buck was feeble minded and order to have a salpingectomy b/c they said heredity plays and important role in the transfmission of insanity and imbecility so it would be better for society if she doesnt have any more children. Case went to supreeme court on the basis of equal protection and 14th amendment due process. the judgement was affairmed equality is strealizing, those fit for society and leaving instituitons for others. Carrie buck was an illegititmate child. case was brought about to test the law. her lawyer may have been paid by a eugeneticist. she was adopted/fosterd, had a daughter illegitmatley which was the result of a rape by her foster parents nephew. her daughter Vivian was streilized, but died at age of 8, 8-1 decision.found due process was not impeeded b/c she went through numerous processes before hand. 1. she was the potential future parent of illegitmate children. 2. its not detrimental to her health, 3. her sterilization is for her and future societies benefit.
many countires including US. roughly 60,000 people are involentary sterilized in US. mentally ill, mentally disabled, physically disabled, promescuity
Stem cells
US- no direct regulations on stem cells. funding is only availae when your working w/ exsisting stem cells. you cannot pay somebody for their eggs- need hormal therapy-issue of informed consent.
1980. he genetically modified bacteria that would eat oil. it would clean up oil spills. he applied for a patent-it was not granted b/c its a living thing.went to the supreme court and they gave them a patent b/c it had been altered enought so you can therefore patent a living organism. 3 primary issues: Practical- they got a patent but cant do much w/ i. they are not allowed to introudce a new organism into the environment.
moral/ethical and legal/consitituional- limits what kind of policys will be passed. how will policy be enforced.
an attempt to go beyound the normal state
return to normal state
onco mouse
developed by Harvard scientist. prone to breast cancer. awarded the first umberella patent
recombinant DNA
produces large quantites of human protein
Bovine Growth Hormone BGH
increases milk production in cows
usually male. An extreme version of maleness
moral decisons based on how they feel.
cost benefit analysis
science and politics
to a degree are inseperable. a considerable proportion of the scientific research budget depends on the apporopirations of the democratically elected gov. social and political considerations may end up outweighing the purely scientific ones
PLC-R test
psychopathy test
hard to diagnose. they are good at lying. they no no moral emotions do not have guilt, no impulse control, short term thinkers, more perseverance whne punished, go with immediate diesires, do not consider alternaties/condequences. less psycholog resonses (lie detecotr) do not act different to emotional cues. can be charming (usually male) more marriage. not a mentall illness its a personality disorder
preventative detention
1999 UK Jack Straw. no constitution
Behavior genetics and policy
1. people from radically idfferent backsground
2. unclear facts
3. preconcieved values and biases
points of politicis / policy:
1. prevent poeple from stepping on eahc other: people want differnt things.
deciding what is healthy and what is normal. making an illness out of what is nromally a human condition (ritalin). part of the normal human experience
Fast tracking
clinical trials show there serious benefits w/ loaw risks the FDA trys to seepd up the regulatory process
Orphan drug law
drugs that affect a small percentage of the population so drug compaines dont want to market it. a "market failure." Its expensive to do research, so the government steps in and funds part of it
making drugs according to peoples genetic code
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis:
policy debate is mainly between experts, the public is largly uninformed. combines IVF and prenatal testing. around 1,000 tests can be done, if it has a disease-terminate or continue. Extract eggs to increase ovulation (hormone therapy) extracting eggs is hard. Fertilize egg in petri dish and grow them, plan more than 1 egg due to success rate (mulitple births). not 100% accurate. it is expensive. sex selection or just disease screening. couples from china come to us for surgery
regulating PGD
doctors self regulate. US department of Health and Human Services CDC center for disease control- requires them to tell success rate. CMS center for medicare somthing- regulate clinical laboratory setting. not reporductive labes. it would otherwise call embryos humans. FDA controls medical tools w/ in clinics. INDIRECT- prohibition of federal funding due to the creation/distruction of an embryo. No direct state laws, Judical herd a few wrongful birth/wrongful life cases
wrongful life
Judical control of PGD. Person w/ disabiity sues saying they should not have been born. have not been successful. this would force the court to determine whether a certain lifestyle is worse than death, they dont want to do that
Wrongful Birth
Judical control of PGD. test failed. Tay-sachs. sue for medicial expenses/ suffering. has been successful. has been used when there was medical negilgence invovled.
INternational PGD law
us- minimal gov. regulation
uk- HFEA saftey ethicaly diseases tested for, moral/social consideration
Japan-lots of strigent, self regulation sever genetic illness only-rarely apporved. allow for lots of prenatal testing
Germany-total ban. human dignity and experimentation. History of Eugenics
role of media in PGD debate
Framing the problem: us--designer babies
Germany- Eugencis
problems w/ PGD
raising an organ donor. tissue type test.
societal concerns- disability rights, family issues,
cost- availabity/insurance
age of onset
how a bill becomes a law
bill proposal- should be on the agenda of congress
committee- (a lot of bills are killed here). Hearings expert testimony, hearings, they decide whether to send the bill to the floor or not
floor-debate add amendments, philibuster, riders
vote- pass/dont pass(w/ or w/out amendments)
OTHER HOUSE- may have to have a joint committee if it is passed w/ amendments
President-sign, veto, hold on to it. veto (2/3 majority overide) Pocket veto (if congress is out of session before its signed (10 days)) If presidnet hols on to it more than 10 days it becomes a law w/ the signiture
Signing statemetn
used a lot by president bush. he puts his opinion on it and writes how the thinks it could be implemented. controversil, he shouldnt interpret it or influence implemetnation.
what level of gov. should handle policy?
global- consistancy, is it even possible for the globe to agree?
state- inconsistancy accross the states, better enforcement
legistlative-complete ban
limit its use (exectuive agnecy)
non governmantl instituion
judicial- interpret law.
somatic cell nuclear transfer
Dolly-cloned sheep died prematurely. the saftey is unclear (donar and clone). take nulclear DNA from an egg then put a sheeps DNA inot the egg and let it grow. Its hard to get human eggs b/c people dont want to under serious hormen therapy to produce them. MtDNA- dont know its exact role, there are such things a MDNA diseases, so transferring cow DNA to human is dangerous. cnat clone a germ cell b/c its only got half the chromosomes. (the other way--embryo splitting, 2 identical twins). twins are clones.
saftey issues w/ cloning
harvesting womens eggs is difficult
clones have higher rates of tumors and infections- most cloned anmials have not lived long enough for serous studies to be done.
clones have been known to die mysteriously
we dont want to allow cloning on humans yet b/c we dont know what kind of effect it has
born with shorter telomeres than most sheep her age. Mutations in DNA build up throughout your life so Dolly inherited mutations from her mother.
CUrrent policy on cloning
Human cloning ban and stem cell research protection bill of 2007, relates only to reproductive cloning. (2 types theraputic and reproductive). Bill wants to protect stem cell research, theraputic invovles stem cells
Political issues w/ cloning
Conservatives view it as a destruction of embryos and want it banned
democrats want to ban reprodcutive cloning but allow research/theraputic
DNA at the end of a chromosome which ges shorter every time it replicates, could be responsible for aging
Human cloning prohibition act of 2006
complete ban on cloning
Right to life act
defines an emhbryo as alive. will cut out abortion and all cloning
current legality of cloning
FDA has a complete ban on reproductive cloning, there are no federal funding for research cloning b/c of the potential destrucition of embryos.
**people have issues w/ the FDA having control over cloning, b/c they are not supposed to consider ethical issues.
FDA role in cloning
under clinton, said no to cloning b/c sceintist said they would clone a human. FDA had no grounds, FDA delas w/ the saftey of medical problems, temporary solution, there were time crunched
allows to get people more educated. hold off on decision. banning for now
states that have a total ban on repo and research cloning
ARK, SD, ND, iowa, mitch.
states that ban repo cloning but allow theraputic
CA, mass, RI, NJ
issues w/ cloning
whats owed to socitey?
suffering individuals?
natural rights, slippery slope (using somebody else as a means to anothers ends.) harvestin humans for their organs (huarvest embryos for transplant) 75% of public disapprove of any type of cloning (are largely uneducated) Diffculty of means vs. ends.
inheritable genetic modification
Human germline genetic modification: inheritable and permanent. Empty the nucleus of a virus, and put wanted DNA, and shoot the virus into the body. virus can still replicate OR directly inject DNA segments into nucleus, give it an electrical shock to open the cells pourous surface and insert the DNA OR use an artifical chromosome, it may mask the unwanted chromoson. this actually been usedd. must be done in zygot or embryo, in ther arlier states.
3 major uses of HGGM
1. enhancement
2. prevention
3. treatment of genetic diesases
WHy is HGGM unsafe?
uncontorled insertion of the DNA caused the halting of french trials- doesnt land in right place. improper gene function- gene doesnt work. failure to remove band gene- might not work enless odl gene is use
some HGGM has been done: Ooplasymn transfer has been performed. its not allowed b/c we dont really know what we are doing
Ooplasymn transfer HGGM
DNA from 3 people, Maternal DMA Paternal DNA and MtDNA from the donor. thses kis will pass all 2 DNAS on to their children, so its is germline
pronuclear transfer HGGM
take a fertilized egg, remove nucleus, and put it in a different egg. it also causes the kid to ahave 2 differnt types of DNA
Problmes w/ HGGM
radically changes family dynamics
informed consent- cant get it from futrue generation. waht is its a fatal untreatble disease. should we allow for lawsuits. would would they sue.
HOw do you do a cost-benefit analysis
scientists say it will eventually become eaiser. . most peopl favor govt regulations of some sort. is PGD a safter way of getting the same thing? human experimentation
the 8 issues w/ HGGM
1. informed consent
2. playng God- does relgion paly a role in sicents? should it be in policy?
3. destroy family tie- unconditional love for a child? "perfect kids" what if you dont get what you want
4. equality- only the rich can afford it. widen gap between has and has nots
5. slippery slope- eugencis v.s therapy
6. mistrust of scientists
7. role of suffering in huma life- some popel think that if you can over come suffering you sould, tohers think that sufferin is part of eing human- nw appreciation for life. euthenasis. is there a human life thats not worth living?
8. questions about the quest for perfection- eugenics. things go wrong, bering imperfect is part of being human. can you even be perfect- constantly seeking but can never obtain
current HGGM PoLicY
UNESCO no genome modification. non binding mainly symoblic. NIH no fuding. Defacto ban under FDA (new drug). No legislation handled through agenies.
current policy on transhumanism
if we expand the life term more older poeoplw will be dependent upom the others. economic problems
increase IQ/ mental capabilties-imprinitng process.
live longer
increase strength- muscle mass/ehgiht
decreasing/eliminating diseas. pum up the immune system
morality--no war, equality, perfection?
relationship between generations- mature slower.
reproductive freedom- they say the just wan to help ppl. relieve diseas, make them live longer. If man is perfect do you need gov? equality, preserve human nature.
psychotropic drug
any drug that changes the chemicla make up on the brain (prozac, ritalin)
transhumanist eventually want to take over man
what IS in place for transhumanism
FDA reg. stem cells- we woudl need to do more reserach. HGH (stopped using it for medical reasons, now its cosemtic.)
emergence theory
Traits are not determined by a specific gene. they are created by complex interactions of genes, nuerons, etc. its hard to control. UN agreement- we wont mess around w/ genome.
HGM policy considerations
goodness of ends?
fitness of means
implications of the mastery of perfectin
patent issues- patent laws passed by Jefferson to promote creativity, patent expries after 20yrs. Human genome project- peopel patent specfic genes, they can then charge a licensing fee. apatent office is overwheled. you cant patent a human, they then become property...slavery laws.
What do you need to get a patent
1. must be origional
2. cnat be obvious
3. must be useful (vauge in the patenting of genes)
4. must be feasable.
what is a chimera?
genes from one organism are introduced into the gens of another organis. this time the genes reamin distint. crossing species that wouldnt normally reproduce (interspecies) Geep-goats and sheep. not a huge problem w/ they are generally given same moral status. 1st chimera success in the 80s.
problems w/ chimeras
potential to sue huma cells to create organ donors of non-humans
at what point is it consider human? how do you defin human?
question of human dignity?
is it unnatural?
what if it reproduces?
person hood: what qualifies as a human. Demark zoo in court to get a chimpanzee person hood, so they can assign it a gardian
constituional-equal prtoection
should we even be creating organisms? mastery over nautre, patenting- leads to def. of property. in US animals are considered proterty, what happens if you cross and human and aricle. are there distinctively human traits- logic and abstract thinking (dolphins do art w/ bubles)
orginal? novelty?
create transplatnable organs w/ human cells. experimentation. immune sytem/ allgergy. profit motive. ego. where is the gentic line that calls you a human or chimp? utiliterain view of nautre- bible-land was giben to man to have dominion ober. but can we do whatever we want to it. instrumentalization of human -treat people as ends anot nver means.
Newman Jones-
case prevenative patnet. he wants to stop reearch on his project. donw want to patnet to go on b/c judge knows if the patent goes through he will stop the biotech reesarch. if he doesnt get thee patent, it sets a precedent for other biotech patents.
patent office options
1. grant
2. reject invention- due to human
3. rejct due to lack of origionality
4. let the courts decide
embryo laws
no fedearl funding