Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/57

Click to flip

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Epistasis
Refers to the interaction of two genes which are non-allelic. It is the masking of the action of alleles of one gene by allelic combinations of another gene.
Cyclins
Protein complex/family which oscillates during the cell division cycle.
Lysogeny
State of integrated viral genome (phage) in the host genome or the state of a bacterial cell that has an integrated phage (prophage) in its chromosome.
pseudoautosomal region/gene
The region of the XY bivalent which synapses during mitosis/a gene that occurs on both sex-determining heteromorphic chromosomes.
x-chromosome
A chromosome that becomes heterochromatic in human females.
replica plating
Replication of bacterial colonies in similar patterns on many plates
F or F'

Fertility Factor
In integrated state this episome transforms bacteria into Hfr.

The plasmid that allows a prokaryote to engage in conjugation with and pass DNA into an F- cell.
phenylalanine
Accumulation of this aminoacid causes PKU
crossing over
The process which results in recombination of linked genes.

A process in which homologous chromosomes exchange parts by a breakage-and-reunion process.
kinetochore
The proteinaceous structure at the centromere binds microtubules.

The chromosomal attachment point for the spindle fibers, located on the centromere.

Trilamellar proteinaceous organelle superposed onto the centromere.
Kinetochore microtubules
Microtubules radiating from the centrosome and attached to the kinetochores of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
Karyokinesis
The process of nuclear division.
Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm of a cell into two daughter cells.
Is the DNA of the lambda phage a circular molecule?
Of course.
homogentisic acid
The chemical which accumlates to result in "black urine" disease.

It should degrade into maleylacetoacetic acid.
Lyonization

Lyon Hypothesis
The phenomenon resulting in inactivation of mammalian X(s).

The hypothesis that suggest that the Barr body is an inactivated X chromosome.
Galactose
The I^B gene adds to
Heterochromatin
Main, genetically inactive, component of Y chromosome.

Chromatin that remains tightly coiled(and darkly staining) throughout the cell cycle.
Auxotrophic
Bacterial strain requiring specific nutritional supplements to grow.
Exogenote
New Foreign DNA which enters a recipient bacteria
Sexduction, F-Duction
Genetic recombination mediated by the F-Factor
Synaptonemal Complex
A proteinaceous complex that apparently mediates synapsis during the zygotene stage and then disintegrates
Homologous Chromosomes
Members of a pair of essentially identical chromosomes that synapse during meiosis
Dictyate/Dictyotene

Diplonema
Mammalian oocytes are suspended at this stage at birth before resuming meiosis.

The stage of prophase of meiosis I in which chromatids appear to repel each other.
Barr Body
Inactive X chromosome found in somatic cells
XIST
The gene on the mammalian X which control X-inactivation
Independent Assortment
Independant "recombination" of two non-linked genes.
Specialized Transduction
First needs integration
Breaks out with one cross over
Results from cross over
Needs lysogeny

Specialized "picks up" specific region near the point of its integration.
Generalized Transduction
Picks up any region
Does not need integration
Doesn't crossover
Results from lytic cycle
Results from regions of just "grasping"?
Interference
Reduction in the frequency of occurence of a cross over in the vicinity of another cross over event
XgA
A gene on the mammalian X which is also present on the Y chromosome.
Bivalent
Structures, formed during prophase of meiosis I, consisting of the synapsed homologous chromosomes. Equivalent to a tetrad of chromatids.
XIST, G6PD, HPRT
Genes on the human X chromosome which exhibit hemizygosity
somatic cell hybrid
Most used method to assign genes on human chromosomes.
pseudoautosomal
The regions of XY bivalent in mammels which show pairing
Transduction
Genetic transfer mediated by a viral genome (particle)
nondisjunction
Failure of chromosomes to seperate properly during cell division
Conjugation
Bacterial "mating"
Segragant Genome
The genome that is lost in somatic cell hybrids
Merozygosity
The condition of being a partially diploid genome in an otherwise haploid organism.
heteromorphic
Decribes a pair of morphically different chromosomes like the XY bivalent
homogametic
An organism that produces gametes of all the same type (mammalian females, X chromosome)
pachynema
The stage of prophase I of meiosis in which chromatids are first distinctly visible.
metaphase I
When microtubules bind to the meiotic bivalents
Inversion
Chromosome abberation which results in sterility only if chiasmata are formed in a certain segment
Euchromatin
Regions of eukaryotic chromosomes that are diffuse during interphase. Presumably the actively transcribing DNA of the chromosomes
Robertsonian Translocation
Fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes at the centromere
Restriction Transduction
Form of transduction based upon faulty looping out by a phage carrying some neighboring loci to the attachment site.
Ubiquitin
Cyclosome attaches this to proteins that are being broken down.
Cyclosome
Anaphase-promoting complex (APC). A protein complex that breaks down cyclin B and other proteins.
Cell Cycle
G1, S, G2, M
Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Meiosis
Prophase I (leptonema - bouquet stage, zygonema, pachynema, diplonema, diokinesis) - when crossing over takes place, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Meiosis II.
Chiasmata/Chiasma
X-shaped configurations marking the places of crossing over.
Synaptonemal complex
Appears between homologous chromosomes and mediates synapsis in an unknown way. Shows up at the beginning of prophase II
Hemizygosity
Condition of a gene only being present on one homolog.
Episome
A genetic particle of certain cells, especially bacterial cells, that can exist either autonomously in the cytoplasm or as part of a chromosome