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60 Cards in this Set

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Genetics
The study of how genetic material gets from one generation to the next
Classical genetics
Concentrates on readily observable characteristics of an organism
Cytogenetics
Observations of the cellular mechanisms using microscopic techniques; used to study characterics
Eukaryotes
Organisms composed of cells containing nuclei
Gene
Unit of information that controls one particular characteristic
Allele
Particular form of a gene
Wildtype allele
Most common form of a gene
Mutation
Process by which one allele is converted to another; very rare
Genotype
Listing of the particular alleles present in an individual
Phenotype
Characteristic controlled by a particular gene
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Molecules composed of genes; controls many different phenotypes
Chromosome
DNA packaged with proteins
Locus
Location of a particular gene on a particular chromosome
Genome
Complete set of genes/chromosomes for an organism
Karyotype
Picture of the chromosomes of an organism; the human genome consists of 24 chromosomes
Autosomes
Chromosomes found in all cells
Sex chromosomes
X and Y chromosomes; present in individuals in different numbers depending on sex
Haploid
Cell that contains one set of chromosomes; most common haploid cells are egg and sperm, or gametes
Diploid
Cell containing two sets of chromosomes
Fertilization
Fusion of egg and sperm
Zygote
Diploid cell containing a maternal and paternal copy of each chromosome from the fusion of sperm and egg
Homologues
Maternal and paternal pair of chromosomes
Polyploid
Cells that carry more than two copies of the genome
Mitosis
Process by which zygotes divide to produce a multicellular organism; parent nucleus divides into two nuclei
Cell cycle
Determines how chromosomes get from one generation to the next
Centromere (primary constriction)
Point of attachment for spindle fibers
Kinetochore
Part of the chromosome within the centromere that actually attaches to the spindle fibers
Telomeres
Special structures at the ends of chromosomes
Arms
Parts of the chromosome between the centromere and telomere
Chromatid
The centromere and two arms; chromosomes consist of either one or two chromatids attached to each other
Spindle organizing region
Defines where th spindle will be produced
Centriole
Spindle organizing region in animals
Spindle
Complex structure composed of microtubules, which are composed of the protein tubulin; Connect the kinetochore to the spindle organizing region to move chromosomes during nuclear division
Interphase
Period of cell cycle before mitosis during which the cell grows and chromosomes are duplicated
Cytokinesis
Cytoplasmic division; takes place after nuclear division
S phase
Period of interphase during which synthesis of genetic material takes place
G1 phase
First period of cell growth during interphase
G2 phase
Growth period during interphase during which cells have twice as much genetic material as in G1
Sister chromatids
Exact duplicates of chromosomes formed during S phase
Chromatin
Diffuse haze of chromosomal material in the nucleus of a cell about to enter mitosis from G2
Prophase
Stage of mitosis during which the nuclear membrane disintegrates, the chromosomes condense, and the spindle organizing region moves to opposite ends of the cell
Metaphase
Stage of mitosis during which the chromosomes move to the metaphase plate between the poles
Anaphase
Stage of mitosis during which the centromere splits and two identical single chromatid chromosomes are created
Disjuntion
Process by which the spindle fibers pull the single chromatid chromosomes to the poles during anaphase
Telophase
Stage of mitosis during which chromosomes reach the poles and decondense and nuclear membranes reform into two nuclei
Meiosis
Mechanism by which haploid gametes are formed from a diploid parent cell
Meiosis I
Reduces the number of chromosomes in each nucleus by half
Recombination
Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes
Meiosis II (equational division)
Separates products of recombination into separate nuclei; the number of chromosomes is not changed
Prophase I
Stage of meiosis I during which the nuclear membrane disintegrates, the spindle forms, and homologous pairs condense and undergo synapsis
Synapsis
Process in prophase I by which chromosomes condense as homologous pairs of double chromatid chromosomes (4 chromatids)
Chiasmata
Points where two chromatids are crossed over one another during recombination
Metaphase I
Stage of meiosis I during which the homologous paris move to the metaphase plate
Anaphase I
Stage of meiosis I during which one chromosome from each homologous pair is pulled to each pole
Telophase I
Stage of meiosis I during which chromosomes are decondensed, nuclear membranes and formed, and the spindle is dissolved
Interkinesis
Period between divisions of meiosis during which there is no growth or S phase
Prophase II
Stage of meiosis II during which chromosomes condense, the spindle forms, and the nuclear membrane disintegrates; chromosomes consist of two chromatids
Metaphase II
Stage in meiosis II during which the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate
Telophase II
Stage in meiosis II during which chromosomes decondense, the spindle disintegrates, nuclear membranes form, and cytokinesis takes place
Gametogenesis
The process of making gametes