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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Albinism is a __________ disease
autosomal recessive
The enzyme that can't be made in Albinism is _________.
The two results of the enzyme deficiency in albinism are?
1)tyrosene builds up in blood stream
2) can't make melanin
two results of lack of melanin are
1)lack of skin pigment
2) lack of eye pigment
1)lack of skin pigment results in
UV sensitivity
increase skin cancer
1) lack of eye pigment results in
poor visual acuity
lack of binocular vision
Stem cells
Cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells
Embryonic stem cells
Primitive (undifferentiated) cells from the embryo that have the potential to become a wide variety of specialized cell types
Human embryonic germ stem cell
A type of pluripotent stem cell derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst.
Embryonic stem cell line—
Embryonic stem cells, which have been cultured under in vitro conditions that allow proliferation without differentiation for months to years.
Hematopoietic stem cell
A stem cell from which all red and white blood cells develop.
Bone marrow stromal stem cells
A stem cell found in bone marrow that generates bone, cartilage, fat, and fibrous connective tissue.
Adult stem cell
An undifferentiated cell found in a differentiated tissue that can renew itself and (with certain limitations) differentiate to yield all the specialized cell types of the tissue from which it originated. (i.e.. bone marrow stem cell)
Mesenchymal stem cells
Cells from the immature embryonic connective tissue. A number of cell types come from mesenchymal stem cells, including chondrocytes, which produce cartilage.
Neural stem cell
A stem cell found in adult neural tissue that can give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
A single embryonic stem cell that can give rise to a colony of genetically identical cells, or clones, which have the same properties as the original cell.
Ability of a single stem cell to develop into many different cell types of the body.
graft-versus-host reaction
An immunologic reaction where the stem cells (or graft) that is given to a patient “attacks” the patient.
host-versus-graft reaction
An immunologic reaction of the immune system of the patient (host) against the infused stem cells (graft)
Human embryonic stem cells =
adult stem cells
Blastocyst (embryonic germ cells)
before implantation (6-8 cell stage)
Benefits of Embryonic Stem Cells

Decreased risk of host-versus-graft

With respect to autoimmune diseases, using human stem cell lines from unaffected individuals or individuals lacking genetic influences may limit the possibility of disease progression or reemergence.
Benefits of Embryonic Stem Cells (con’t.)
Decrease graft-versus-host reaction.

Embryonic stem cells are substantially more permissive to gene transfer compared with adult cells.

Embryonic stem cells sustain protein expression during extensive self-renewal.
Problems with Embryonic Stem Cells
Ethical issues

Harvesting large numbers