Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/32

Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 Misconceptions about Heritability
1-It is a precise statistic
2-It can be applied to an single individual
3- it is a constant
Nature-nurture debate
No such debate at the individual level.

Influence of genes and of environment is only relevant for the discussion of group-level variation
Family Studies- percent shared with other family members
On average, parents and siblings share 50% of their genes. Grandparents, uncles, aunts,nieces and nephews share 25% on average. 1st cousins share on 12.5 on average.
when does Selective Breeding work
Only works with traits that are moderate to highly heritable.
Family Studies- potential flaw
Since many close family member also share the same environment, it may not be that siblings are shy b/c shared genes, but rather shared parents(environment)
3 Misconceptions about Heritability
1-It is a precise statistic
2-It can be applied to an single individual
3- it is a constant
on what level does the Nature-nurture debate take place
No such debate at the individual level.

Influence of genes and of environment is only relevant for the discussion of group-level variation
Family Studies- percent shared with other family members
On average, parents and siblings share 50% of their genes. Grandparents, uncles, aunts,nieces and nephews share 25% on average. 1st cousins share on 12.5 on average.
Selective Breeding
Only works with traits that are moderate to highly heritable.
Family Studies- potential flaw
Since many close family member also share the same environment, it may not be that siblings are shy b/c shared genes, but rather shared parents(environment)
Monozygotic twins (MZ)
MZ come from a single fertilized egg which divides into 2 at some point during gestation and share 100% of their genes.
Dizygotic twins (DZ)
DZ come from 2 eggs that were separately fertilized and share only 50% of their genes. they are no more alike than regular siblings
what do adoption studies provide evidence for
provide strong evidence for environmental influences if there is a positive correlation b/t parent and adopted children since they share no genes
Family studies
Correlates the degree of genetic overlap among family members with the degree of similarity in personality trait
Twin studies
Estimates heritability by gauging whether identical twins, are more similar than fraternal twins
what does mz twins being more similar that dz twins provide evidence toward
If MZ twins are more similar than DZ twins, this provides evidence of heritability
calculating heritability formulas
2 times the difference in r of mz and dz: 2(mz-dz)
Two assumptions of the twins method
Equal environments assumption
Representativeness assumption
how much of the major personality traits are heritable
Summaries of behavioral genetic data yield heritability estimates for major personality traits of about 20-45 percent
are Attitudes and Preferences heritable
Wide variance in heritability of attitudes
Some attitudes (e.g., traditionalism) show high heritability (about .60), whereas others show low or no heritability (e.g., beliefs in God
is Drinking and Smoking heritable
Both show evidence of heritability
Shared Versus Nonshared Environmental Influences
Shared: In family environment, features of the environment shared by siblings (e.g., number of books in home)

Nonshared: In family environment, features of the environment that differ across siblings (e.g., different friends, different teachers)
what would an 30-50% personality characteristics range show about environmentality
Personality characteristics show heritabilities in 30–50 percent range; hence, showing substantial degree of environmentality—50–70 percent
Genotype-Environment Interaction
Differential response of individuals with different genotypes to the same environments...For example, task performance of introverts versus extraverts in loud versus noisy conditions
Genotype-Environment Correlation
Differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments
Passive Genotype-Environment Correlation
Parents provide both genes and environment to children, yet children do nothing to obtain that environment...
Child’s verbal ability and the number of books in home
Reactive Genotype-Environment Correlation
Parents (or others) respond to children differently depending on the child’s genotype...
Baby’s liking for cuddling and the mother’s cuddling behavior
Active Genotype-Environment Correlation
Person with particular genotype seeks out a particular environment...
High sensation seekers expose themselves to risky environments
3 types of Genotype-Environment Correlation
Passive, Reactive, Active
Molecular Genetics
Techniques designed to identify specific genes associated with personality traits
what does a long version of the 4DR gene usually mean for a person
located on the short arm of chromosome 11, codes for dopamine receptor...Individuals with the “long repeat” version of D4DR gene are higher on novelty seeking than individuals with the “short repeat” version of gene...
But several failures to replicate association and, when replicated, association is weak
environmentalist view
that personality is determined by socialization practices, such as parenting style