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50 Cards in this Set

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Define:
Wild Type
The common phenotype
Define:
Mutant
any phenotype other than wild type
Define:
Linked genes
genes hat are found on the same chromosome
what can cause the link between genes to be broken?
crossing over
Define:
recombination frequency
the percentage of offspring that are recombinants
Define:
autosomes
chromosomes that don't determine sex
Define:
Transformation
change in genotype and phenotype by taking in external genetic material
Describe viruses
DNA enclosed by a protein coat

infect cells with genetic material, causing cell to produce more viruses
What is each nucleotide composed of?
5C sugar,
phosphate group,
nitrogenous base
How are the bases paired?
adenenine forms 2 hydrogen bonds with thymine

guanine forms 3 hydrogen bonds with cytosine
Define:
semiconservation model
1 DNA molecule replicates to form 2 DNA molecules that each contain one strant of the original molecule
Define:
origin of replication
site where strands separate and replication begins
Define:
replication fork
Y-shaped region in replication bubble where DNA replication occurs
What are the proteins involved in separating the 2 strands of DNA?
Helicase, Topoisomerase, single-strand binding proteins
What is the function of helicase?
separates and unwinds the 2 DNA strands
What is the function of topoisomerase?
relieves strain as DNA strand unwinds
What is the function of single strand binding proteins?
bind to unpaired strands until new strands form
Define:
leading strand
strand with 3' end towards replication
Define:
lagging strand
strand with 3' end away from replicaiton fork
Define:
primer
short strand of RNA that is attached to the template strand by primase
Define:
Mismatch pair
After replication, enzymes replace incorrectly paired bases
Define:
nucleotide excision repair
damaged DNA is removed by nuclease and replaced with new nucleotides
Define:
Telomeres
short nucleotide sequences at the end of each DNA strand, contain no genes and prevent DNA loss during replication
Define:
Transcription
Making DNA into RNA
Define:
Translation
Making RNA into protein
Where does transcription occur in Eukaryotes?
nucleus
Where does translation occur in Eukaryotes?
the cytoplasm
How does thranscription work?
mRNA synthesized antiparallel to DNA template
Define:
Codon
sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid
What are the three stages of Transcription?
1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination
Define:
promotor
DNA sequence that marks beginning of transcription
Define:
RNA polymerase
enzyme that separates DNA strands and synthesizes RNA strand
How does initiation work in prokaryotes?
RNA polymerase binds directly to promoter
Define:
TATA box
specific region of promoter
Define:
Transcription Factors
proteins that bind to TATA box
How does initiation work in Eukaryotes?
Transcription Initiation Complex: RNA binds to transcription factors that are bonded to TATA box
How does elongation work?
RNA polymerase moves along DNA, separating strands and synthesizing RNA
After RNA polymerase passes, RNA detaches from DNA and DNA strands rejoin
Define:
Terminator
DNA sequence that causes RNA poly,merase to detach
Define:
Polyadenylation sequence
DNA sequence that signals RNA to be release and transcription complex to detach
What is the code of the polyadenylation sequence?
AAUAAA
How does termination work in Prokaryotes?
RNA polymerase reaches terminator and detaches
How does termination work in Eukaryotes?
RNA polymerase reaches polyadenylation sequence and is released and transcriptiom complex detaches
Define:
5' cap
modified guanine added to 5' end of mRNA
define:
Poly-A tail
50-250 adenines added to 3' end
What are the functions of the 5' cap and poly-A tail?
help export mRNA from nucleus
protect mRNA
help ribosomes attach to mRNA
define:
Introns
non-coding regions that are cut out of mRNA before it leaves the nucleus
define:
Exons
coding regions that are spliced together after introns are removed
Define:
snRNP
proteins + small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
Define:
Spliceosome
snRNPs + protein
What is the function of spliceosomes?
recognize the specific nucleotide sequence at the end of an intron
cut out introns and splice together exons