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20 Cards in this Set

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p?
frequency of most abundant alletle in the population
q?
Less abundant allelic frequency
p^2?
frequency of normal individuals. Usually homzygous dominant.
2pq?
Heterozygous frequency
Physicans refer to this as carrier frequency.
q^2?
Affected frequency, usually homozygous recessive. Physicans refer to this as incidence.
Allelic frequencies?
p and q.
Genotypic frequencies?
p^2, 2pq. q^2
Map unit equation?
100x[(sum of recombinants)/(Sum of all)]
Independent assortment?
Inheritance of alleles at one locus does not influence inheritance at another loci
Semi dominance?
(parital or incomplete dominance) Heterozygous are intermediates
Codominace?
Different alleles impart independent effects on phenotype. Blood type is a archtypical example.
Polygenic inheritance?
To have multiple genes influencing the same trait. Most traits are polygenic.
Epistatis?
For a gene to mask the phenotype of another gene at another locus.

The gene that masks is the suppressor or epistatic

The suppressed gene is hypostatic.
Hemizygotes?
Males only have half as many X linked alleles.

Y only carries a few but one of the is SRY and this causes embryo to develop into a male
Sex influenced inheritance?
Autosomal genes that are expressed differently in males and females. Generally they are secondary sexual characteristics.
Characteristcs of X Linkage?
Affected grandfather, carrier mother, affected grandson
Barr Bodies?
Inactivated X chromosomes that become heterochromatic.
Primary assumption of Hardy Weinberg?
That the population is at equilibrium. Meaning the population is not undergoing evolution.
Mutation as a secondary assumption?
Represent a minute change in allelic frequency. A mutation can only add onle allele to the population.
Genetic drift as a secondary assumption?
The random assortment of various genotypes and phenotypes that very from generation to generation.

More pronounced in small populations