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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is genetics?
The biology of heredity
What is molecular genetics?
The technique of removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains
Biotechnology
The use of living organisms or coponents of living organisms to solve problems and to make useful products
What do humans, chimps, bonobos and gorillas have in common?
A common ancestor
Denmark
Has the highest level of evolution belief
An adenine in one of the DNA strands of the double helix is always opposite a blank
Thymine
A guanin is always opposite of
a cytosine
Because the two stands are complementary, during DNA replication...
each stand can serve as a template
Enzymes called DNA polymerases are responsible for...
Synthesizing new DNA
RNA polymerases are the enzymes responsible for
Transcribing DNA into Messenger RNA
The 4 bases of RNA?
U, C, A, G
A codon has how many letters?
3
Each codon specifies an?
Amino acid
Mutations are?
Heritable changes caused by alterations in the nucleotide sequence in DNA
Chromosomal mutations
Can cause some cancers, and are letal in the germ line (egg, sperm or zygote)
Point mutations
Mutation of a single gene, one allele becomes another because of small alterations in a nucleotide sequence
Base Substituion mutations
changes in nucleotide sequence that substitute one base for another
Regarding Base substituation mustation, what is a samesense
the mutation has no effect on the amino acid sequence - silent mutation
Regarding Base substituation mustation, what is a missense
One amino acid is replaced by a different amino acid
Regarding Base substituation mustation, what is a nonsense
an amino acid is replaced by a "stop" codon so that the truncated protein is formed
Insertion or deletion of one or two bases causes a?
Frameshift mutation
The structure of DNA and the genetic code are univeral for all living organims? Why is this cool?
Cause it allows for a piece of DNA to be easily transplanted from one organism to antoerh
The enzymes that bacteria use to copy, cut, and splice their own DNA can be
Purified and used to splie together news combinations of DNA pieces, called recombiant DNA
Circular pieces of DNA in bacteria (plasmids) can be copied many times, this is called?
Replication
Restriction Enzymes
Cut DNA in a site=specific and reproductable manner to yield discrete fragments
Noncoding DNA
Introns and DNA between genes
mRNA only contains...
Codon regions - if we reverse mRNA we only get the protein coding genes
Human genone has how many pairs or chromosomes?
23
Chromosomes numbered 1-22 are called?
Autosomes
X and Y chromosomes are the
Sex Chromosomes
XX
Female
XY
Male
Meiosis
When the cell spilts and gets %50 from the sperm and egg
DNA
Encodes geners, the instructions needed to make RNA and proteins - transcrbied into RNA
mRNA
The template for the production of proteins, the molecules that build and comprise structures and perfrom enzymatic reactions
Substituion
Changing one letter to another, causeing the protein to change
Deletion
Deleting the codon, thus deleting the protein
Insertion
Adding more letters, and adding another protein
Frameshift
taking out one letter, which offsets everything else
Inversion
switching the letters around, changing the protein
Nonsense mutation
A single base pair substituion that permaturely codes for a stop codon
Missense mutations
Result in teh substituion of one amino acid for another
Null mutations
Result in the loss of a protein product from a gene
Repetitive elements
Repeated sequences are found throughout the genone
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Amplifies specific regions of DNA - has made it possible to produce many copies of a specific DNA sequence from small amouts of materials
How is the PCR done?
DNA has to be signle standed, so it has to be denatured (high temps for 30 seconds), then DNA primers anneal to the specific region on the template DNA, then the polymerase extends the primers with the nucleotude bases, generating a new double stand of template DNA. Done 35 times
Ingredients in PCR
Heat
Template DNA
Primer molecules - usually 18-30 bases in length, complementary to the sequence you want to copy
Extra nucleotide based
A buffer with magnesium
Advantages of PCR?
Cheaper, simple and requires less skill, requires very little template DNA, wide range of verstaile techniques
Example of insect resitance
BT (bacillus thuringienses toxin)
Herbicide tolerant
73% of GM crops, such as soybeans, corn, canola, cotton
These BT and HT changes work cause they transcribe a
transgene
B-carotene
The stuff they put in the vitamin rich rice
Cloning
Asexual reproduction that results in a genetically identical organism
Embryo Spittling
Spltting the embryo and putting half in a cell with no nucleus
Nuclear Transfer
Once intital egg cell has split, they take 4 of the cells and put them in nucleus empty cells, and nuclear transfer them
In adults - nuclear transfer
Has to use somatic cells, put them in cell culture, nuclear tranfer then embryo transfer
Nuclear transfer
Tranfers of a cell(nucleus) into an egg cytoplasm - DNA is removed from an egg, then donor cell is inserted into enucleated egg, then en electric charge is applied using microelectrodes causeing them to fuse in culture
how did scientists insure that the tomato cells that were grown into plants in fact contained the Flavr Savr gene?
the put Kanamycin into the growth medium, whcih killed any non-flavsavr tomato
Does Martineau agree or disagree with this conclusion? Why or why not?
HE thinks that each genetically engineered plant shoudl be taken by a case by case basis, plus this process was safer than most others
What does no-till farming mean? What are the benefits of no-till farming? How and why are genetically modified crops often necessary for no-till farming?
Not ploughing, cheaper, doesn't release toxins into the air, sil gets healthier. Only genetically modified crops can be used cause they are resistant to weeds
What are some risks of biotechnology noted in this paper?
Resistance spreading to the weeds, pollon travels very far
When and where did the Green Revolution begin according to this interview? Why must it continue into this century?
In mexico to increase the wheat production - high yield plants made - Global hunger is still a threat
How does biotech decrease environmental impact of food production compared to conventional farming, according to Borlaug?
Technology is more precise and less time consuming, higher yields, less land
What does Borlaug cite as one of the biggest problems with biotech today, in spite of its great potential?
Inaccesability in poor countries
How did the Green Revolution affect the many rice varieties of India, according to this article?
Varity went down
What is “Miracle Rice” and why was it created?
Vitamin A - to prevent blindness
What does she argue are the problems with vitamin A rice?
Doesn't meet percent daily intake, can't be absorbed by the body, rice ends up being owned by cooporations, not the people
Who does Shiva say that rice in Asia must be owned and controlled by? Why?
The small farmers - diversity, meaning
According to a quote by Sharma, why does genetic modification of crops succeed where conventional breeding cannot?
Produces traits such as disease resistance and drought tolerance
What is Bt cotton? What are its advantages according to this article?
higher yield
What is Sahai’s major objection to India’s embracing GM? How is this similar to Shiva’s objection to GM rice in the previous reading?
it will hand over control of India's food supply to multinational companies that are motivated by profit
What did Monsanto accuse Percy Schmeiser of doing? What was the result?
that he stole GM seeds - got angry, sued
Give some examples of how different biotechnologies have been incorporated into livestock or other animal breeding programs.
Artifical insemination, sire-testing, DNA-based marker-assisted selection of superior animals
What are some scientific (not social/moral) problems with cloning?
high rates of pregrancy loss, abnormtalities - caused by incorrect reprogramming of the transferred nuclear DNA
Describe briefly how the process of cloning works.
Remove nucleus from egg, then they fuse it with a somatic cell contraining the nucleus and genetic material from another cell by the appliocation of an electrical charge. put in culture, then put in mommy
What are some agricultural applications of genetic engineering of animals?
good for valuable animals, , make many sires, produce aniamls well suited to envirnoment, increase milk production
List an example of each of the following categories of concerns associated with animal biotechnology: environmental, animal welfare, and ethical.
Envirnomental- genes could spread to wild type
Animal welfare - unhealthy offspring, high death rates
Ethical Should we play god?
According to this article, how is the proposed transgenic salmon created? What is the difference between it and non-genetically altered salmon?
Growht hormone and promoter - makes them grow all seasons
What are some fears about this transgenic salmon?
Escape, drive down salmon prices, farmers have to use hormones to keep up with competition
What are some of their beliefs? How do they fit into the issue of human cloning?
Aliens, biotechnology, eternal life
Based on this article, what are three groups of people might be interested in cloning?
People who can't have kids, people who lost a child, a spectacular person who should live on forever
What does “chimera” mean?
part human animals
What does this article suggest is the least controversial use of chimeras? Give some examples of this use.
human replacement organs - grown in pigs
Outlaw cloning, why?
Progressive - market for eggs? Hormone treatment for it?- dictating the outcome of the child?
According to this fact sheet, what are some of the greatest impacts of having the sequence?
Disease research - new approach to biological research
What is the DNA constancy hypothesis?
The amount of DNA per chromosome set within an individual prganism is constant, and the DNA content of a single set of chromosomes is largely invariant among members of the same species
What is the C-value paradox? What do we know now that clears up this so-called paradox?
Amount of DNA in a haploid chromosome - happens because of repeated DNA
How did we get so much non-coding DNA in our genomes?
Slefish DNA, evolution
Approximately what percentage of the human genome contains protein-coding genes?
1.5%
What is Comparative Genomics? What are some of its goals?
How the functions of human genes and other DNA regions are revealed by studying their parallels in nonhumans - Complete sequence of fruitfly, roundworm, mouse
What is Functional Genomics? What are some of its goals?
understanding the functions of genes and other parts of the genone - Goals: to generate full-lenght cDNA clones, improve methods, develop technology for large-scale protein analyses
What is convergent evolution?
Two or more populations acquiring the same trait independently
Briefly explain the genetics behind lactose tolerance/intolerance.
A mutation makes it so people can longer drink milk
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
Reuires reprogramming of nucleus from a mature cell
Diseases can be caused by
Loss of gene function by mutation in either the exon (cystic fibrosis) or the regulatory region (fragile X)
Diseases can be caused by
a gain of gene function (huntington's)
Diseases can be caused by
Modictation of gene function (sickle cell)
Phenylketonuria
Autosomal recessive - 380 mutations in phenyalanine hydroxylase
Sickle Cell Enemia
Autosomal recessive - single base change in DNA leading to one amino acid change
Cystic Fibrosis
Autosomal recessive - many mutations - in gene for ion transport across membranes
Tay Sach's
Autosomal recessive - Hexosaminidase A deficiency
Fragile X
X-linked - Triplete expansion repeats
Huntington's
Autosomal Dominant - CAG repeats in huntingtion protein
What are the four criteria required to receive a patent?
Useful, novel, nonobvious, describe in detail
The Council for Responsible Genetics is a NGO, (a non-governmental organization) that opposes US government policy regarding patents. What are their major arguments?
Patents on life hinder research, indigenous economies, and genetic diversity
cDNA
laborator made version of a gene that contains only it's information rich (exon) regions
What are the benefits of pharmacolgenomics?
More powerful medicines, better safer drugs, more accurate ways to give out drug dosages, advanced screenings for diseases, better vacines, lower cost of health case
Barriers to pharmacolgenomics?
Complex to find gene variations that affect drug response, limited drug alternatives, expensive for drug companies, educating health care providers
Mom has two normal alleles, father has hemophilia
All daughters are carriers, all sons are normal
Given the example two hypothetical children, one boy and one girl, of a mother that has hemophilia and a father that does not , what are the chances that each child will have hemophilia? What are the chances that each child will be a carrier of hemophilia?
.5 daughetrs normal, .5 daughters are carriers, .5 sons are normal, .5 sons are hempophilic
What is pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)?
process in which embryos are created in a test tube and DNA is analyzed before being transferred to uterus
What are some uses of genetic tests?
testing for diseases, such as Alzheimer's
In genetic testing it is important that...
The person provides consent, privacy is offered, and that we give good information about what the genetic info means
a ligase
enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond
a ligase
enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond
Briefly summarize the experimental evidence that the author uses in this article to support his conclusion that behavior has a biological root
Behavior often is species specific, Behaviors often breed true, Behaviors change in response to alterations in biological structures or processes, In humans, some behaviors run in families, Behavior has an evolutionary history that persists across related species.
REtrovrial
Used for gene theraphy - has an inability to infect nondividing cells, but can be effective long term
Adenovrial
Used for gene theraphy - had adverse immunoloical consequences but is easy to grow and is highly effective
Standard Dogma
Carlnogens directly alter the DNA sequence of cancer-related genes causing a mutation in tumor suppressor genes and then mutations in oncogenes causes oncoproteins to become hyperactive causing them to grow, a lot
Modified Dogma
Something disables one of more genes needed to accurately syntheize or repair the DNA - then as the cell devides random mutations occurs
Early Instability
Something silences out one or more master gene, and mistakes occur duing duplication of chromosomes
All-Aneuploidy
A mistake during cell division produces aneuploid cells
Stem Cells
Unspecialized, can divide and renew themselves, can become specialized
Humans all orginated in
Africa
Skin color is determined by
melanin - involved in Vitamin D production
Single Nucleuotide Polymorphisms
Provide insigh into the history human migration
To get DNA samples
DNA extraction -> DNA Quantitation -> PCR Amplification of Multiple STR markers -> Compaire loci
Gene theraphy
a technique for correcting defective genes responailb efor disease development
What are the four approaches identified? (Gene therapy)
normal gene is inserted, an abnormal gene could be swapped for a normal gene, the abnormal gene could be repaired, and regulation of a gene could be altered
4 viruses used for gene theraphy
Retroviruses, Adenoviruses, Adeno-associated viruses, Herpes simplex viruses
Problems with gene theraphy
Short-lived; immune responces; problems with the viral vectors; multigene disorder - most diseases caused by multiple mutations
List and give a specific example of four ethical issues raised by this case - Jesse Galager
Gene theraphy isn't safe, unsure of consequences, may not be in teh right state of mind to comply, corportate interests,
Stem cells can come from
Embryos, umbilical cords, adult tissue, cadavers
Examples of stem cell therapy
Skin replacement, brain cell transplant