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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a particular gene functions as a master switch that triggers development of the eye (a fly having extra eyes on its antenna)
the study of the stages of development leading from a fertilized egg to a fully formed organism
model organism
An organism chosen to study broad biological principles.
Drosophila melanogaster
(fruit fly) one of the most important model organism. the embryos develop outside the mother's body
Caenorhabditis Elegans
(the soil-dwelling nematode)
-1/4 offspring have a mutant phenotype(homozygous for recessive allele)
-every adult hermaphordite has exactly 959 somatic cells. useful in studying for cell's reconstuction
Mus musculus
(mouse)its genome ( ~ 2600 Mb containing 25000 genes) is about the same as human, so M.musculus known as mammalian model
Danio rerio
(zebrafish)- easy to breed in lab, transparent embyo develop outside mother's body. By 24 hr after fert. most of tissues and rudiments of the organs have formed ( its genome~1700 Mb)
Arabidopsis thaliana.
(small flower plant-common wall cress)it has really small genome ~118 Mb which is about 25500 genes
transformation of a zygote or Embryonic development
need three interrelated processes: cell division, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis.
cell differentiation
The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism′s development; dependent on the control of gene expression
( the creation of form)
The development of body shape and organization or Cells are organized into tissues and organs.
the body axes of the organism
anterior–posterior (head–to–tail) axis and the dorsal–ventral (back–to–belly) axis.
apical meristem
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
Animal development
Zygote-> egg cells-> blastula-> gastrula-> adult
a sphere of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity
when a region of the blastulas folds inward, creating a tube called " a rudimentary gut"
In animals, but not in plants,
movements of cells and tissues are necessary to transform the early embryo into the characteristic three–dimensional form of the organism.
In plants, but not in animals,
morphogenesis and growth in overall size are not limited to embryonic and juvenile periods but occur throughout the life of the plant.
genomic equivalence
they all have the same genes