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47 Cards in this Set

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metaphase
second phase, begins when the chromatin pairs line up along the center of the cell. this makes is possible for the chromatids to position themselves so that they can migrate to the opposite poles of the cell- tetraploid (4N) 88+4 double normal chromosome #
genetics
process to inherit traits/characteristics
heterozygous
2 different genes for the same trait; unlike alleles
hybrid
offspring produced by breeding two pure lines
punnett square
used to seperate genes and find its final result; devised by R.C. Punnett
father of genetics
Gregor Mendel
ribosome
site of protein synthesis
codon
made up of 3 bases
anaphase
third phase
nuclear membrane begins to reform- stage where chromatids migrate to the opposite poles of the cell. the chromatid pairs split and the spindle fibers contract pulling each chromosome toward their pole. this process continues until the chromosomes arrive at each pole. the nucleus reappears and the spindle fibers disappear
tetraploid (4N) 88+4 double normal chromosome #
gene
made up of DNA; units Mendel studied; segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein; determines specific characteristics of an organism.
homozygous
2 alike genes for the same trait; identical alleles
monohybrid
genetic crosses w/one trait
first pure bred parents
first parental generation
DNA
double helix in which genetic code is found
zygote
produced by the joining of the eggs
down syndrome
what triploidy of chromosome number 21 results in
telophase
fourth phase nucleus reappears and the spindle fibers disappear until the cell splits into two. this split is called cytokinesis. we now have 2 daughter cells, each identical in the number and type of chromosomes. they are smaller than the mother cell and will being to develop starting interphase again (2N) (2N)
chromosome
made up of a segments of genes, small, dark, cylindrical bodies that are made up of microtubules and located just outside the nucleus; humans have 46
phenotype
observable trait
dihybrid
genetic crosses w/two traits
first generation of offspring
first fillial generation
Karyokinesis
division of the nucleus
haploid
1N
gamete
sex cells; egg and sperm
genotype
any unobservable trait; genetic makeup; the actual genes that an organism has
trihybrid
genetic crosses w/3 traits
polyploidy
extra chromosomes- causing mild to devastating disorders
Cytokinesis
uncontrolled division of the cytoplasm
diploid
2N
heredity
end result of an inherited characteristic
allele
alternate ( 2 seperate) form of a gene governs the characteristics of an organism
translocation
process when part of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to another chromosome; breaking a piece of a chromosome and adding it to another chromosome
interphase
resting stage of the cell, phase that most cells spend the most time in-carrying out its daily activities

diploid (2N) 44+2 normal chromosome #
tetraploid
4N
dominant
only takes 1 gene for a trait to show up; a phenotype that appears whenever it is present
phenotypic ratio
number of dominant compared to the number of recessive
transcription
DNA is copied by mRNA; process of producing mRNA from instructions in DNA
replication
process by which DNA makes an exact copy of itself
Y chromosome
causes maleness
prophase
first phase- chromatin is coiled up into visible chromosomes-nucleus disappears, chromatin pulls together and forms pairs of rope-like structures called chromatin pairs. These chromatid pairs are held together by a structure called the centromere- protein microtubules that play a vital role in seperation of sister chromatids. Spindle fibers also begin to appear and alon with the centrioles they migrate to the poles of the cell-homologous chromosomes, tetraploid (4N) 88+4 double normal chromosome #
reduction division
cuts chromosome numbers in half only happens in gametes
recessive
takes 2 genes for a trait to show up
genotypic ratio
number of homozygous compared to heterozygous
translation
protein is built according to mRNA
co-dominance
equal dominance from 2 genes when they are equally dominant; example- pink snapdragons

only happens in plants!
nucleotide
subunit of DNA consisting of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
DNA mutation
a mistake of change in the DNA sequence