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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are common indications for genetic counseling?
1. Advanced maternal age
2. Families who've had a previous child w/ Down's Syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality.
3. Families who've had a prvious child w/ a neural tube defect.
4. Women w/ abnormal screening test during pregnancy.
5. Family Hx of MR
6. One parent w/ balanced chromosomal rearrangement
7. Couples w/ 2 or more spontaneous abortions
8. Women exposed to harmful agents early in pregnancy
9. People in an ethnic group at risk for certain genetic diseases.
What occurs during a counseling session?
1. A family pedigree is drawn based on family medical Hx.
2. Discuss family med Hx as far bas as first cousins & grandparents
3. Review medical records
4. Discussion of the natural Hx of disorder, risk of recurrence, available Tx, preventive measures, prenatal Dx.
5. After session, a written summary sent to pt and referring doctor reviewing the genetic risk and alternative decisions that are possible.
Is the routine use of ultrasound recommended for pregnant women judged to be at low risk of pregnancy complication?
No, but most pregnant women in US have routine ultrasounds.
What does a basic ultra-sound scan during the first trimester of pregnancy do?
1. Identifies gestational sac and its location
2. Identifies embryo and crown-rump length
3. Records the fetal number
4. Documents fetal heart activity
5. Evaluates uterus and adnexal structures
What type of ultrasound scan is needed to accomplish all the first trimester objectives?
A transvaginal scan.
What type of ultrasound scan is usually performed in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters?
A transabdominal scan.
What does the ultra-sound scan during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters do?
1. ID's the fetal number, life, and presentation
2. Asseses gestational age
3. Estimates amt of amniotic fluid
4. ID's placental location/appearance
5. Evaluates uterus and adnexal structures
6. Surveys fetal anatomy
What are some factors that limit accuracy of ultrasound?
1. Equipment/Technician's Skills
2. Maternal factors (obesity, scars, etc.)
3. Gestational age
4. Fetal factors (position, oligohydramnios)
5. Time of appearance of anomalies
6. The organ system evaluated
When is the ideal time to visualize fetal anatomy w/ ultrasound?
22-24 weeks gestation
What type of fetal structures are easily identified?
Fluid-filled structures.
Which structures are the most difficult to visualize?
Soft tissue defects (cardiac anomalies, etc)