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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the name of the famous book published by Charles Darwin?
The Origin of Species
What signifance does Darwin's Orgin of Species have on modern psychology?
It led to modern psychology's framework being integrated with evolutionary biological theory.
What were the two main reasons that Darwin's Origin of Species was so influential to the scientific community?
It provided massive amounts of evidence and it described a mechanism by which evolution could occur, Natural Selection.
What is Natural Selection?
The theory that all living species, including humans, arrived at their present biological structures and mechanisms through a historical process involving random inheritable changes. Those changes that enhanced an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in the environmental conditions in which it lived were passed along in increasing number from generation to generation, and those that hindered survival and reproduction were lost.
Thinking about psychological processes in terms of their value to the individual.
The biological units of heredity, passed along from parent to offspring. They are crucial to the development of the individual and are responsible for a person's biological characteristics.
How do genes affect behavior?
This is a tricky question; Genes can only affect the physiological structure of an organism. That structure can then have implications on the behavior of the organism, but the genes in no way code for behavioral traits directly.
Genes from what particular body systems are the most relevant for behavior?
Genes that contribute to the development of the sensory systems, motor systems (muscles and other organs involved in movement), and nervous system (including the brain).
Genes affect the body's development through what type of molecule?
Genes code for Protein molecules.
What are protein molecules?
They are what our bodies are made of.
Approximately how many protein molecules are in the human body?
70,000 protein molecules.
What type of protein molecule forms the structure of every cell of the body?
Structural proteins
What kind of protein molecules control the rate of every chemical reaction in every cell?
What are genes themselves made of?
Genes are extremely long chains of DNA (deoxribonucleic acid).
Where does DNA reside in the human body?
There is a full set of DNA in the nucleus of every cell in the human body.
What is the role of DNA?
DNA serves as the template for producing another molecular substance called RNA (ribonucleic acid), which in turn serves as a template for making proteins.
What is a protein made of?
A protein molecule is made of a chain of smaller molecules called amino acids.
What is the "job" of the gene?
To provide the code that dictates the particular sequence of amino acids for a single type of protein.
Every aspect of an indiviudal and his or her surroundings except the genes themselves. This includes the nourishing womb and maternal bloodstream before birth; the internal chemical environment of the developing individual; and all the events, objects, and other individuals encountered after birth. It also includes foods.
What is the role of foods in genetics?
Food supplies genes with amino acids that are needed for protein synthesis.
Can genes be influenced by environmental forces?
Yes. Genes can be "turned on" and "turned off" by environmental forces, leading to bodily changes that alter the individual's behavioral capacity. For example, physical exercise modifies the chemical environment of muscle cells in a way that activates genes that promote the further growth of the muscle.
How does an experience lead to behavioral changes on a biochemical level?
The experience activates genes, which produce proteins, which in turn alter the function of some of the neural circuits in the brain and thereby change the manner in which the individual behaves.
The set of genes that the indiviudal inherits.
The observable properties of the body and behavioral traits.
Can the same genes do different things?
Yes, depending on the environment and the mix of other genes. Identical human twins (who have the same genes) will differ phenotypically in muscle strength if one exercises a lot and the other does not. Genetically identical mice will differ phenotypically if one is isolated and the other is not.
Structured units of genetic material (DNA) that reside in each cell.
How many pairs of chromosomes does the normal human cell have?
23 pairs of chromosomes.
How do the chromosomes differ among males and females?
22 of the 23 pairs of chromosomes are the same in both males and females. The 23rd chromosome pair, in a normal human male,contains an X chromosome and a Y chromosome. The female is different in that its 23rd pair has two X's and no Y.
When cells divide to produce new cells other than egg or sperm cells, the do so by a process called mitosis. Mitosis involves DNA replication, division, and the subsequent formation of two cells with identifcal DNA.
What can be attributed to the different structures/functions of the different cells in your body if they all contain the same DNA?
The differences areise from the differential activation of their genes, not from different content. A liver and a skin cell have the same genetic material, but different parts of the genetic material are being activated in the different cells.
The process by which cells divide when producing sperm or eggs which involves two divisions rather than just one and results in cells that are not genetically alike.
"Crossing Over"
The process in which sections of DNA are interchanged between chromosomes during meiosis after replication but before cellular division. This process is one of the mechanisms responsible for sexual reproduction's ability to maintain genetic diversity.
A single new cell created when a sperm and an egg unite; a zygote contains the full complement of 23 paired chromosomes, one member of each pair coming from each parent. The zygote grows through mitosis and eventually becomes a new adult.
What is one reason why sexual reproduction was came about instead of asexual reprodution?
Some say that it has to do with th evolutionary benefits of producing organisms that are geneticall diverse in allowing them to survive changes in their environment and adapt out of the predation of viruses, bacteria and other parasites.
"Identical Twins"
The only people who are genetically identical; the are formed when two bundles of cells separate from each other during the early mitotic divisions following the formation of a zygote.
What is the other, more scientific term for identical twins?
Monozygotic twins
"Fraternal Twins"
Twins that originate from two zygotes, formed when each of two eggs is joined by a sperm. Fraternal twins are no more or less similar to each other genetically than are any two nontwin siblings.
The scientific name for a location on a chromosome. Sometimes genes that occupy the same locus on paired chromosomes are the same, and sometimes they are not.
An individual who has genes of the same locus that are identical on the paired chromosomes.
An indiviudal who has genes of the same locus that are different on the paired chromosomes.
Different genes that can occupy the same locus, and thus can potentially pair with each other.
"Dominant and Recessive genes"
Dominant genes are those that in the presence of other genes will cause only their coding to be present in the phenotype. For example if the gene for brown-eye color were dominant over the gene for blue-eye color, then in the presence of both, that person would have brown eyes. The gene for blue-eye color would be an example of a recessive gene because it only will be manifested physically if there is no dominant gene present.
"Percent Relatedness"
A useful index of the likelihood that any rare gene that exists in one individual will also exist in a relative.
Who was the monk who was famous for his contribution to the field of genetics?
Gregor Mendel
What is Gregor Mendel famous for discovering?
The 3:1 ratio of expressed dominant traits to recessive traits when two orgnaisms that are heterozygous for a trait are bred.