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33 Cards in this Set

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Alternative forms of the same gene. For example, the gene controlling flower colour has yellow and white alleles
Alternative same gene
A protein produced by white blood cells in response to infection. It finds disease-causing organisms such as pathogens so they can be destroyed by special cells called phagocytes
Protein white blood cells infection. Finds disease-causing organisms destroyed by special cells called...
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction in which genes are passed on from only one parent
Genes passed on one parent
The four bases - Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) - make up the 'rungs' of the DNA 'ladder'. In DNA, the bases pair with each other: A with T, C with G
ACGT - Rungs of the DNA ladder. A -> T; C -> G.
The result of the rapid uncontrolled growth of cells. These cells form tumours which may spread and invade other organs
Rapid uncontrolled growth tumours spread invade
A person whose cells has both a normal and faulty allele. Symptomless carriers show no signs of the genetic disorder they are carrying
Cells normal and faulty allele. Symptomless no signs of disorder carrying
The basic 'unit of life', consisting of a nucleus and cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane
Unit of life nucleus cytoplasm membrane
Thread-like structures in the nucleus made up of strings of genes
Thread-like nucleus genes
A group of genetically identical plants or animals produced asexually from one parent
Genetically identical produced asexually one parent
Cystic fibrosis
A genetic disorder in which the person produces abnormal, sticky mucus in their lungs
Genetic disorder abnormal sticky mucus lungs
Designer babies
Offspring produced with particular characteristics using either genetic modification or embryo screening
Produced particular characteristics using GM or embryo screening
A chemical containing the code which tells a cell how to develop. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
Chemical code cell develop. DNA stands for...
DNA fingerprint
A pattern of bands produced when short lengths of DNA are separated using an electric current
Bands short lengths DNA separated current
An allele which overrides other alleles of a gene so that their effects are hidden
Overrides other alleles effects hidden
Embryo screening
Selecting embryos with particular characteristics, usually to eliminate a genetic disorder
Selecting particular characteristics eliminate disorder
When the nuclei of two gametes (sex cells) - such as an ovum and a sperm cell - join together
Nuclei gametes join
The medical knowledge used in the detection of crime
Medical knowledge used detection crime
A sex cell; for example an ovum or sperm. Gametes carry only one copy of an allele
____ cell, for example... Carry one allele
A piece of DNA that contains the instructions needed for a particular characteristic, such as eye colour
Piece of DNA instructions particular characteristic
Gene therapy
Replacing faulty alleles with working copies of the affected gene
Replacing faulty with working of affected
A term used to describe the descendents of a pair of individuals
Term describe descendents pair of individuals
The science concerning the inheritance of characteristics
Science inheritance characteristics
Human Genome Project (HGP)
A project, began in 1990, which set out to map the human genetic code by working out the sequence of the genes in human DNA
Project 1990 set out map genetic code working out sequence genes in DNA
A term used to describe the passing of genes from parents to offspring
Term describe passing genes parents offspring
A small fat-like droplet which can be used to deliver working genes to cells in gene therapy
Small fat-like droplet deliver working genes to cells gene thereapy
The part of a cell which contains genetic material in the form of chromosomes
Part contains genetic material chromosomes
An allele whose effects are hidden by the presence of a dominant allele. A recessive allele must be inherited from both parents in order to show its effects in the offspring
Effects hidden presence dominant allele. Inherited both parents show effect offspring
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction in which half the genes are inherited from each of two parents
Reproduction half genes inherited two parents
Stem cell
Cells which continue to divide and which have the ability to replace cells in all types of tissue
Continue to divide ability replace cells all types tissue
A term applied to an organism containing genes taken from another species
Term applied organism containing genes another species
A term used to describe an organ which has been donated by one organism and inserted into the body of another, such as a kidney transplant
Term describe organ donated one organism inserted body of another
This describes the differences shown in a group of organisms; for example fur colour and flower colour
Describes differences in group of organisms
A simple particle that enters and affects cells. Mild viruses such as the adenovirus, which causes the common cold, may be modified and used to put working copies of genes into faulty cells
Simple particle enters affects cells. Mild viruses modified put working copies of genes into faulty cells