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14 Cards in this Set

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meiosis
sexual reproduction, 2n-->1n
produces 4 haploid daughter
2 cell divisions
each contains 1 member of each pair of homologous chromosome
how gametes form

1 set of chromosomes
mitosis
asexual reproduction,2n-->2n
produces identical daughter cells, full complement of DNA
somatic cells

2 sets of chromosomes
mutations at chromosomal level
-translocation (hybrid, chromosomes exchange)
-insertion (peice of chromosome insertd into different chrom)
-deletion (i piece deleted)
-duplication (1 piece repeated)
-inversion (order inverted)
DNA properties
anti-parellel polarity
2 strands bound together with hydrogen bonds b/w bases
sugar, phosphate group, base= 1 nucleotide; base determines specific typoe of nucleotide

synthesized in 5 to 3 direction
base bonds
G, C triple bond
A, T double bond
polarity
at 5 end: phosphate at carbon 5 not bonded to another nucleotide (carbon 3 involved in phosphodiester bond)

at 3 end: phosphate at carbon5 bonded to antoher nucleotide but carbon3 not joined to another nucleotide
gene
=short segment of DNA; sequence of nucleotides that provides cell w/ instructions for synthesis of specific protein

influences how cells, tissues, organs appear; inherited appearances=traits
flow of genetic info
DNA->transcription=mRNA ->translation=protein
chromsomes
formed during DNA replicatin only
1-22 are autosomes
23 is sex chromosome

sister chromatids=exact replicas of each other copied during DNA synthesis
transcriptional regulation
controlling amount of mRNA transcribed from particular gene as way to turn genes on or off
transcriptional factors
DNA binding proteins that can bind promoters and interact w/ RNA polymerase to stimulate transcriptoin of a gene
genetic mutations
-point: change in single nucleotide; often base pair substitution where base pair replaced by different base pair
-insertion: nucleotide inserted into gene sequence
-deletion: removal of base pair
gene mutation can cause...
change in protein structure/function, synthesis or nonfunctional protein, or not protein synthesized... change or loss of trait
protein mutations
silent: changes codon sequence of gene to another codon that codes from same amion acid (no effect on structure or function)

missense:change a codon so that different amino acid is coded for, may or not change structure of protein

nonsense: change a codon for an amino acid into stop codon, abnormally shorted protein (usually nonfunctional)