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54 Cards in this Set

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What material in the cell controls the traits of an organism?
The chromatin in the cell controls the traits of an organism.
What is crossing?
Crossing is the process of transferring sperm from what parent to fertilize the egg of another.
What is a gene?
A gene is a part of a chromosome that controls the traits of an organism.
What is the smallest number of genes that controls a trait?
One gene pair.
When does a hybrid trait result?
A hybrid trait appears when the traits of a gene are different.
What happens if there is no dominant gene?
When there is no dominant gene, the genes are expressed together.
what do the 4 boxes of Punnett Square show?
THey show every possible combination of gene pairs that an offspring could inherit.
If both parent gene pairs are hybrid, what part of the offspring will have the pure traits?
The offspring that recieves the pair will have a pure recessive trait.
What is heredity?
Heredity is the passing of one parent's traits to an offspring.
Predict the percentage of offsprings that will have attached earlobes when there is a cross between a pure recessive and a hybrid.
50%
How are the genes of a population passed on?
The genes are passed on in the chromosomes of egg and sperm cells.
What is mutation?
Mutation is the change in the gene that can cause a new trait to appear.
Why is chlorophyll important to a plant?
It makes food for the plant.
What is the importance of natural selection?
Serves the passing of genes that are most adaptive to a particular environment.
What processes have brought about changes in the types of organisms on Earth?
Adaptation and natural selection.
Why is it easier to observe mutation in a bacteria than other organisms?
Bacteria can create several generations in an hour.
Besides genes, what else may be responsible for an organism's trait?
The environment.
What are some traits that are selectively bred?
Faster growth rate and greater food production.
A gene is part of what substance?
Each gene is part of a DNA molecule.
What is recombinant DNA?
DNA made by the movement of genes from one organism into the other.
In what type of organism is recombinant DNA used to produce the Hepatitis B vaccine?
Yeast
Why Black Peppered Moths rare in rural areas of England?
They adapted better to the city environment because of pollution changes.
What chance is there for a pure recessive trait in a cross between hybrid and a dominant?
50%
What organisms are used to produce recombinant DNA?
Bacteria
An inherited characteristic of an organism is a:
trait
A pair of recessive genes or a pair of dominant genes will produce a:
hybrid
Passing of traits from parents to offsprings is:
heredity
The part of chromosomes that controls the traits of an organism is the:
gene
A gene that controls a hidden trait is:
recessive gene
A molecule made by the movement of genes from one organism to another to form new combinations.
Recombinant
A trait that results when a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene:
hybrid
The study of how traits are inherited:
genetics
A gene whose trait is always expressed:
dominant
The process by which organisms adapt or die is called:
natural selection
A change in genes that can cause a new trait to appear in a new population:
mutation
In the crossing of organisms which desirable traits to produce offspring with a combination of these desirable traits.
selective breeding
The comb. of a dom. and rec. gene results in a mutation.
False: hybrid
Most traits are controlled by 2 pairs of genes.
true
A punnett square can be used to predict the percentage of an offspring with a certain trait.
true
A pure gene is one whose trait is always expressed.
False: dominant gene
natural selection is a change in genes that can cause a new trait to appear.
False: mutation
The final appearance of an organisms trait may not always be the result of the genes.
true: environment and adaptation
Scientists can move a gene from one org. from a species to another org. from a diff. species.
true
a hybrid trait cannot be expressed in the presence of a dom. gene
true
A characteristic passed from parent to offspring is a:
trait
If a gene for a white is dom. and the gene for red is rec., then the offspring of a pure white flower and a pure red flower will be:
all white
A trait that results when both genes in a pair are dominant is:
pure
Some genes are neither dom. or rec. and the trait they express together is:
hybrid
The crossing of organisms to make a desirable trait is:
selective breeding
What factors in the environment change the final appearance of an organism without changing the genes of the organism?
Sunlight, habitat, nutrition.
When will the trait of a rec. gene be expressed?
When the recessive gene is pure recessive.
An offspring has long eyelashes. One parent has long the other has short eyelashes. NEither parent is a hybrid. Which gene is dominant?
long eyelashes
One parent has a hybrid trait, the other has a pure. How do you figure it out?
punnett square
What is the chance that the offspring in question 1 will have the pure trait?
50%