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85 Cards in this Set

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Absolute Zero
O k, -273C -459F temperature at which all molecular motion stops
Acceleration
Change in velocity
Acid
A substance that is able to donate H- ions (protons)
Activation Energy
Minimum energy for a reaction to occur
Active Site
Specific site on a catalyst or enzyme where reactions occur
Adhesion
Binding force between two non-alike substances
Air
78%Nitrogen
21%Oxygen
1%Argon
Alkanes
Carbon compound with only single C-C bonds
Alkenes
C compound with a Carbon double bond
Alkynes
C compound with a Carbon Carbon triple bonds
Alpha Particle radiation
particle with 2 protons and 2 neutrons (a helium nucleus)
Anion
Negatively charged ion
Angiosperms
Flowering plants
Anode
electrode where oxidation occurs
AMU
Atomic mass unit
Atomic number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Avogardo's number
6.02 x 10^23; number of molecules per mole of a substance
Base
H+ acceptor; produces an excess of OH- ions in solution
Beta particles
Radiation composed of electrons
Biosphere
Part of the earth where organims live
Breeder reactor
Reactor that produces more fissionable fuel than it consumes
Calorie
Unit of energy
1 cal = 4.18 Joules
Cathode
Electrode at which reduction occurs
Capicitance
Charge holding ability
Cation
Positively charged ion
Chiral
A molecule that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image
Cohesive forces
Attractive forces between like molecules
Critical mass
Smallest amount of fissionable material needed to sustain a chain reaction
Conduction
Transfer of Heat by contact
Convection
Transfer of Heat by circulation currents
Current/Voltage relationship
Ohm's law
Density
Mass/Volume Ratio
Deuturium
aka Heavy Hydrogen
Contains an extra neutron
Diffraction
Light spreading when passing through a slit
Dry ice
Solid Carbon Dioxide
Electrolyte
Substance that produces ions in a solution
EMF
Electromotive force: electrical pressure measured in volts
Endothermic
Reaction in which heat is absorbed
Entopy
Measure of disorder in system
Exothermic
Reaction in which heat is given off
Faraday
Charge equal to 1 mole of electrons
Fission
Splitting of a large nucleus into two or more
Fusion
Joining of 2 light nuclei to form a more massive one
Charles' Law
Gas Temp/Volume Relationship
Boyle's Law
Gas pressure/Volume Relationship
Ground State
Lowest energy and mot stable state
Gymnosperm
Non flowering plants
Heat of fusion
Energy required to melt a solid
Heat of vaporization
Energy required to vaporize a liquid
Haber Process
Commercial ammonia making process
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
Ion
Electrically charged atom
Isomer
Compounds whose molecules are the same but have different structures
Isotope
Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons, thus having different molecular weights
Kinetic energy
Energy of motion
Lewis acid
Electron pair acceptor
Mass number
Number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus
Meniscus
Curved upper surface of a liquid column
Miscible
Liquids that mix with each other in all proportions
Molarity
Concentration given by: molecules of substance/liters of solution
Mole
6.02 molecules of a substance
Momentum
Product of Mass and velocity of an object
Neutron
Electronically neutral particle with that same mass as a proton
Noble Gasses
Gases that don't form compounds easily
Osmosis
Net movement of a solvent woards an area of greater solute concentration
Oxidation
Process in which a substance loses one or more electrons; the opposite of reduction which is the gaining of electrons
Ozone
Molecule with 3 oxygen atoms
Photon
Bundle of light particles
Polymer
Repeating units of molecules in a chain
Power
Rate at which work is done
Radiation
Transfer of heat by waves
Refraction
Light bending
Scale of Hardness
Moh's Scale
Specific Gravity
Density of an object relative to water
Stoichiometry
Relationships among the quantities of products and reactants in a chemical reaction
Superconductor
Substance that undergoes a change at low temperatures that allows it to conduct electricity with zero resistance
Surface tension
Intermolecular cohesive attraction that causes a liquid to minimize its surface area
Thermodynamics Law #1
Energy is conserved
Thermodynamics Law #2
Entropy (disorder) is increasing
Transformer
Device that changes electrical voltage
Triple Point
Temperature at which solid, liquid, and gas phases exist in equilibrium
Valence Electrons
Outermost electrons used in bonding
Volitile
Tending to evaporate easily
Work
Movement of an object against a force
Lewis base
Electron pair donor