Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define the following terms: Gland
A group of cells that prepare and release a chemical for use by the body
Define the following terms:
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body’s production of antibodies which can destroy the pathogen
Define the following terms:
A chemical messenger released in the bloodstream that sends signals to distant cells, causing them to change their behavior in specific ways
Describe the main function of lymphatic system .
The lymphatic system fights disease.
Describe the main function of urinary system .
The urinary system regulates water balance and chemical levels in the body.
Describe the main function of the endocrine system .
The endocrine system controls various functions by releasing hormones.
What two kinds of structures make up the lymphatic system?
The lymphatic system is made up of lymph vessels and lymph nodes.
How does lymph get pumped through the lymphatic system?
The contraction of certain muscles squeezes the lymph vessels, pumping lymph throughout the system.
What gland produces tears?
The lacrimal glands produce tears.
What two purposes do tears serve?
Tears clean the eye of contaminants and provide a chemical relief for sadness.
What three kinds of cells in the lymph nodes fight infection?
The lymph nodes have T-cells, B-cells, and macrophages which all fight pathogens and toxic chemicals in different ways.
What kind of cell in the lymph nodes produces antibodies?
B-cells produce antibodies
What kind of cell helps the lymphatic system “remember” an infection so that it can fight the infection better the next time?
Memory B-cells give the lymphatic system a memory of past infections.
Does it do any good to take a vaccine once you are sick with the disease the vaccine is supposed to fight? .
It does little good. The purpose of a vaccine is to give you the antibodies and the memory B-cells before the infection takes place.
Where are the lymphocytes, the infection-fighting cells of the lymphatic system found?
lymphocytes are found in the lymph nodes
Explain how a kidney functions. Start with the blood going into a kidney and end with it leaving the kidney
The renal artery brings blood into the kidney. This blood supplies oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the kidneys and picks up the cells’ waste products. Then, the blood is filtered. The water and chemicals are dumped into tubes called nephrons. As the chemicals and water travel through the nephrons, cells absorb specific amounts of water and chemicals which get put back into the blood. Any water and chemicals left over get sent to the renal pelvis and out of the kidney. The cleaned blood leaves through the renal vein.
What does a kidney do with any excess water or chemicals? Where do they go?
Excess water and chemicals are dumped into the renal pelvis and then travel through the ureter to the bladder. Eventually, they leave the body through the urethra.
What is the purpose of dialysis?
Dialysis is the process by which a person is hooked up to an artificial kidney when their own kidneys are not functioning properly.
What function does the hypothalamus gland control?
The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland.
What does the thyroid gland produce?
The thyroid produces hormones that regulate the basal metabolic rate.
What function does the pituitary control?
The pituitary gland produces hormones that control many of the endocrine glands.
What does the pancreas gland produce?
The pancreas gland produces insulin which enables glucose to enter the cells.
What does the adrenal gland produce?
The adrenal gland produces cortison which causes the liver to release glucose into the blood.
Which gland is often called the “master endocrine gland?”
The pituitary gland is often called the “master endocrine gland.”
If many of the endocrine glands in the body begin to malfunction, just one gland might be responsible. Which gland might that be?
The pituitary gland might be malfunctioning. Since it controls most endocrine glands, a failure there would make most endocrine glands fail.