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559 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DNA
genetic information of an individual
daughter cells
cell produced after cell division
an equal seperation and distribution of the chromosomes from one parent cell to two new daughter cells is the end result of
mitosis
control center for hunger, thirst, body temperature, and blood pressure
hypothalamus
classification of life
taxonomy
change in one or more characteristics of a population of organisms overtime
evolution
group of organisms that can mate with each other under natural conditions and produce fertile offspring
species
clean odorless gas that supports combustion it reacts with all elements to form stable oxides
oxygen
a metal and a nonmetal bound together is classified as a
formula unit
most materials you see are not made of just one type of element. most materials are made of
compounds
the end result of meiosis is the production of
four genetically distinct daughter cells from each parent
converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
generator
on the periodic table, elements to the left of the dark "stair step" line are
metals
on the periodic table, elements to the right of the dark "stair step" line are
nonmetals
on the periodic table, elements that straddle the dark "stair step" line are
metalloids or semimetals
defining characteristic of an atom
atomic number
clear colorless odorless gas makes up 75% of the earth's atmosphere. it is very stable molecule, is not flammable and reacts with very few other elements. a major use is in ammonia and nitrates both used in fertilizers
nitrogen
makes up 75% of the earth's atmosphere
nitrogen
insolation is another name for
solar radiation
when eggs and sperm unite to form a zygote
reproduction
usually foliated minerals aligned into bands
metamorhic rocks
the direction earth rotates as it revolves around the sun
counterclockwise
earth's axis of rotation is tilted how many degrees
23 1/2
high energy, light particle
gamma ray
an electron is what kind of particle
beta particle
motion about an axis
rotation
the mass of one mole of a compound
molar mass (g/mol)
the work you do against gravity is the
gravitational potential energy
quantity having both magnitude and direction
vector
devices that convert energy from one form to another
generator, motor, battery, photocells and photovoltaic
kinetic and potential energy of an object change when what is done by or on a object
work
energy possessed by an object because of it motion
kinetic energy
energy possessed by an object due to its position
potential or stored energy
two main types of energy
potential and kinetic
when force is applied in the same direction as the motion it generates the force is
positive
when force is applied in a direction opposite to the motion it is
negative
the process of cellular respiration requires the presence of
oxygen
energy released during cellular respiration is stored as
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
various forms of genes
alleles
inorganic crystalline substances with definite chemical compositions and unique physical properties
minerals
in humans cells there are how many chromosomes organized into how many pairs
46 chromosomes, organized into 23 pairs
many plant and animal cells have how many set of chromosomes
2 sets of chromosomes
crystalline rocks
igneous rocks
comprised of cemented rock fragments and may contain fossils
sedimentary rocks
an object that has no net or unbalanced force acting on it will remain at rest or it will move with a constant velocity in a straight line
newton's first law of motion
the number of protons and neutrons in an element is the element's
mass number
permits humans to be aware of the external environment and react to it voluntarily
sensory somatic system
portions of DNA molecules that determine the characteristics of an individual
genes
which type of cell division produces eggs and sperm
meiosis
meiosis produces how many daughter cells from each parent
4
the measure of how much acid there is in a solution
ph scale
when one substance breaks down into two or more different materials
decomposition reaction
much of this is recycled through respiration, the majority is recycled through decomposition
carbon
areas of low pressure
rarefractions
transport blood and oxygen from the lungs to various tissues of the body
circulatory system
characterized by climate conditions and species which live there
biome
transports oxygen from the environment into the lungs
respiratory system
atom where's there more electrons than protons resulting in a negative charge
anion
two basic features all cells share
plasma membrane and cytoplasm
animals, plants and microorganisms obtain the energy they need through the process of
cellular respiration
unique type of cell division that produces four daughter cells from each parent
meiosis
every solid, liquid, and gas in the universe is formed from
atoms
a material that cannot be chemically broken down into something simpler
element
made up of atoms
elements
the equation

carbon dioxiode + water -> glucose(sugar) + oxygen + water

is known as
photosynthesis with the release of oxygen into the atomosphere
areas of high pressure
compressions
genes can take on various forms called
alleles
rate at which any device converts energy from one form to another
power
like speed, velocity describes how fast an object is moving but velocity also specifies the
direction of motion
the nerves extending to and from the central nervous system makeup the
peripheral nervous system
mass product equals the combined mass of the
reactants
cell division where the daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
meiosis
the various plants and animal species living in a area each population of organisms has a habitat and a nich or role
community
white blood cells are also called
leukocytes
the human nervous system is divided into the
central and periphal nervous systems
the brain and spinal cord makeup the
central nervous system
organic chemistry is the study of
carbon based molecules
acts on an object whether or not it is falling, resting on the ground or being lifted
force of gravity
measure of the amount of matter in an object not dependent on gravity
mass
wieght of an object varies from place to place and depends on
gravity
force that opposes the motion between two surfaces that are in contact
friction
two types of friction
static friction and kinetic friction
force that opposes motion of an object at rest
static friction
opposing force between surfaces in relatie motion
kinetic friction
transfer of energy to an object when the object moves due to application of force
work
converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
motor
any substance that offers little resistance to changes in its shape when pressure is applied
fluid
only gases and liquids are considered
fluids
one of the most important properties that characterize fluids is their ability to exert
pressure
states energy can neither be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
law of conservation of energy
as kinetic energy increases what decreases
gravitational potential energy
as gravitational potential energry decreases what increases
kinetic energy
usually forms cations
metals
average mass of all the naturally occuring isotopes of an element
atomic mass
obtained by averaging the masses of an element's isotopes
atomic mass
the electrons found in the outer shell of an atom and responsible for holding atoms together when making a compound
valence electrons
from left to right on the periodic table, the elements are arranged in order of the number of what in their nucleus
protons
two basic processes occuring in order for the genotype to be expressed as a phenotype
transcription and translation
element's one or two letter designation
atomic or elemental symbol
genotype
DNA of an individual
cell division where the daughter cells function as gametes
meiosis
gametes
eggs and sperm
products of fermentation
carbon dioxide and ethanol
all objects above earth undergo vertical motion this vertical motion is called
free fall
two types of graphs used to analyze motion
positon time graph and velocity time graph
when an object accelerates in the same direction it is moving in
positive acceleration
an increase in velocity
acceleration
a decrease in velocity
decceleration
the time it takes for 50% of a material to decay into another species
half life
small disk shaped blood fragments produced in bone marrow and starting material for blood clotting
platelets
extension of the circulatory system that includes the spleen
lymphatic system
cell division with the end result being the production of 4 genetically distinct daughter cells
meiosis
the 4 oceans largest to smallest
pacific, atlantic, indian, and artic
organisms that break down dead organism and recycle the nutrients back into the environment
decomposers
successive levels in a food chain and on a food pyramid
trophic levels
most abundant element in the universe (but not on earth) a clear odorless gas
hydrogen (H)
second most abundant element in the univers but present only in very small fraction on earth a colorless odorless gas that is not flammable
helium (He)
air parcels with relatively uniform temperature and moisture content
air masses
mammals whose embryos develop within the mothers uterus for a short perios of time before birth, after birth the baby completes development in the mothers abdominal pouch
marsupials
these mammals have a placenta , a connection between the embryo and the mother's uterine wall that allos the embryo to obtain nutrients, the baby completes development in the uterus
placental mammals
are always at the top of the food pyramid in low number
consumers
the role that an organism plays in the community
niche
always at the base of the food pyramid in high number
producers
all the organisms living together in a community with each other and with non living factors like water, light, and soil
ecosystem
discipline of biology concerned primarily with the interaction between organisms and their environment
ecology
prokaryotic cells
simple cells
nucleus
contains DNA
ribosomes
where cells make protiens
where chlorophyll is stored in plant cells
chloroplasts
active transport requires the cell to
expend energy
we live on the earth's thinnest layer the
crust
plants absorb light in what color wavelengths
red and blue
how many elements have been found or created
112
process in which cells break down carbohydrates (such as glucose) in order to produce water and carbon dioxide
cellular respiration
chlorophyll molecules reflect what color light
green
anything with a definite mass that takes up volume
matter
red blood cells are also called
erythrocytes
plasma membrane is also known as the
skin of cell
movement of molecules from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration
diffusion
type of diffusion with movement of water into and out of the cell
osmosis
defined mass, volume, and shape
solid
defined mass and volume but not a defined shape
liquid
defined mass but no defined volume or shape
will expand to fill any container
gas
nervous system that works involuntarily
autonomic
amu stands for
atomic mass units
subatomic particles that make up atoms
protons, neutrons, and electrons
specific collections of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons
atoms
elements of the periodic table that are among the most abundant on earth and in the universe
first 20
elements that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
isotopes
another name for sun centered
heliocentric
study of all celestial objects including earth
astronomy
plasma membrane
outer boundary of cell
the major rock types
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
3 essiential principles governing fluids in motion or at rest
archimedes, pascals, and bernoulli principles
when an object accelerates in the opposite direction it is moving
decceleration or negative acceleration
pure water is neither acidic or basic therefore it is
neutral
the biosphere is divided into subunits called
biomes
the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom is what kind of energy
potential energy
when acids and bases react they form what as their products
water and salt
solutions with low ph's between 0 through 7 are
acidic
solutions with a ph of exactly 7 are
neutral
solutions with high ph of 7 through 14 are
basic
the material in a solution in greater quantity
solvent
the material that is dissolved the solvent
solute
series of pressure vibrations that are transmitted through matter
sound waves
elliptical paths
orbits
what percentage of the earth is covered in water
71%
insulates the earth provides a means to absorb, refract and reflect the energy reaching us from the sun
atmosphere
classification of cells
prokaryotic and eukaryotic
fundamental particles matter is made up of
protons, neutrons and electrons
4 ways materials pass through the plasma membrane
osmosis, diffusion, active transport and facilitated diffusion
types of mammals
marsupials, monotremes, and placental mammals
cytoplasm
semi liquid foundation of cell
the different layers of earth
core, mantle, asthenosphere, crust
neutron symbol and neutron relative charge
symbol n
relative charge 0
two types of sound waves
compressions and rarefactions
group of individuals belonging to one species living in a defined area
population
fertilized egg cell
zygote
clear colorless odorless non reactive gas makes up 1% of the atmosphere used in light bulbs and in welding
argon
a atom or group of atoms with a charge
ion
each column in the periodic table is called a
group
each group on the periodic table has a similiar configuration of
electrons
the number atop the columns of in the periodic table indicates the number of what in an element
electrons
instead of calling nonmetals made with more than one type of element compounds their called
molecules
collections of nonmetals that are tightly bond together
molecules
the equation

DNA -> mRNA -> protien

is known as
central dogma of molecular biology
when a cell undergoes mitosis it produces
two exact copies of itself
the equation

glucose + oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide + energy(ATP)

is known as
cellular respiration
all genes present in an individual
genotype
the expression of the genes in an individual
phenotype
mutually beneficial relationship between two organisms
mutualism
the various forms of genes are called
alleles
ways organisms living together in an ecosystem interacts
mutalism, commensalism, parasitism, and predation
food chains are composed of
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers
which cells undergo meiosis
germ and sex
two hormones that the pancreas produce
insulin and glucagon
the first law of motion emphasizes the concept of
inertia
defined as the tendency of an object to resist changes in its motion, the first law of motion is often called
the law of inertia
the capacity to do work
energy
converts chemical, thermal, nuclear, or solar energy into electrical energy
batteries
converts light energy into electrical energy
photocells or photovoltaic cells
force exerted per unit area
pressure
cell division where the daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
meiosis
red pigmented protien that binds loosely to oxygen and carbon dioxide and transports these substance throughout the body
hemoglobin
white blood cells that are part of the immune system
lymphocytes
vibrations that travel through the earth
seismic waves
earthquakes and explosions on or near the earth surface produce
seismic waves
percent of the earth's waster in salty oceans
percent of the earth's fresh water
97% in salty oceans
3% in fresh water
all the earth's water makes up the
hydrosphere
light travels in waves, the distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next is a
wavelength
what kind of products can be broken down by microorganisms into harmless substances that can then be used by other organisms
biodegradable
the largest ecosystem
biosphere
gases that make up the earth constitute the
atmosphere
water on earth makes up the
hydrosphere
as the volume of gas increases the pressure
decreases
percent of cells in blood
percent of plasma in blood
45% cells
55% plasma
approximately how many years old is the earth
4.5 billion yrs old
the male part of the flower is the
stamen
the transformation of a solid directly into a gas is called
sublimation
vaccines work because they prepare one's what cells
memory cells
the process of dividing one cell nucleus into two nuclei is called
mitosis
the building block of sugars and the substances used by plants in photosynthesis are
carbon dioxide and water
reaction where one substance breaks down into two or more different materials
decomposition reaction
reaction where two or more different substances react to form one compound
synthesis or combination reaction
when two compounds react and an exchange occurs
double replacement
a compound that increased the quantity of hydrogen ions (H+) in an aqueous solution
acid
compound that decreases the H+ concentration by increasing hydroxide (OH-) concentration
base
message encode on DNA molecule inside the nucleus is copied onto another molecule called mRNA
transcription
mRNA moves out of the nucleus into the cell's cytoplasm attaches to ribosomes, tRNA picks up amino acids in cytoplasm and bring ribosome and link in order of mRNA code
translation
usually form anions
nonmetals
force exerted on an object by the force of gravity
weight
aceleration equals
9.81 m/s^2
site of such activities as speech, vision, movement, hearing, smell, learning, memory, logic, creativity, emotion
cerebum
coordinates muscle contraction
cerebellum
two factors that characterize translation
displacement and movement from a reference point
ways of describing motion
speed, velocity, and acceleration
alpha particle
two protons and two neutrons
in the electron cloud electrons occupy locations called
orbitals
chloroplasts
where plant cells make food(sugar)
mitochondria
where cells produce energy
main components of eukaryotic cells
nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast, and ribosomes
organelles
internal bodies
eukaryotic cells
complex cells containing many internal bodies with specialized functions
released into the atmosphere as a byproduct of photosynthesis
oxygen
chemical reactions are written in terms of
molar ratios
on the periodic table the elements to the left are
reactive metals
on the periodic table the elements to the right are
nonmetals and metalloids
the elements in the center of the periodic table are
transition metals
substances with two or more different atoms of an element bound together
compounds
substances that are recycled through the ecosystem
carbon, nitrogen and phosorous
solid mixture of two or more metals
alloys
oxygen rich blood returns to the
left atrium
then number of compressions or rarefactions generated in one second by sound waves is called
frequency or pitch
oxygen poor blood enters the
right atrium
the apparent change in frequency of sound due to movement of the source or observer is called the
doppler effect
atom that has fewer electrons than protons resulting in a positive charge
cation
five mile vertical space around the surface of the earth
biosphere
energy dependent on the distance an object is from the ground or for chemists the types of chemical bonds present
potential energy
when bonds form energy is
released
when bonds break energy is
absorbed
air's weight
barometic pressure
when an element reacts with a compoun and an exchange takes place
single replacement reaction aka single displacement reaction
linear motion is also known as
translation
motion in a straight line
linear motion (translation)
most metals in nature are found with
sulfur and oxygen
in nature coinage metal (silver, gold and copper)in their native or what state
elemental state
for cells to exchange materials with the external environment substances must be able to move through the
plasma membrane
energy that is stored
potential energy
day to day condition of the atmosphere
weather
the pigments that capture the energy from sunlight for plants is called
chlorophyll
plants obtain energy from
sunlight
the process in which plants make their own food with carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis
a substance that allows for flow of an electric current is called a
conductor
a substance that does not allow for the flow of electric current
insulator
food chains interact to form a
food web
in the periodic table the number found under each atomic symbol is the
atomic mass
at any time multiple forces can act upon an object, how these multiple forces affect the motion of the object is governed by a collection of laws called
newton's laws of motion
push or pull that can result in the motion of an object at rest or a change in direction of an object in motion
force
the faster something is moving the higher the
kinetic energy
earth's two major motions
rotation and revolution
rocks are comprised of
minerals
organisms that feed directly on producers
primary consumers
air moisture content
humidity
the layer of atmosphere we live in where weather occurs
troposphere
long term condition in a given area
climate
another name for insolation is
solar radiation
the vast majority of elements on the periodic table are
metals
animals that do not have a spine
invertebrates
shorthand notation in which symbols for elements and compounds are written showing a chemical change
chemical equation
the major distinction of the periodic table is that of
metals and nonmetals
parent cell
the original cell
2 types of cell division
mitosis and meiosis
respiration without oxygen
anaerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration is known as
fermentation
study of how genes control characteristics or traits in living organisms
genetics
animals with a spine
vertebrates
transmitted from parents to offspring
genes
organisms that feed on primary consumers
secondary consumers
one organism benefits however does not affect the other organism
commensalism
photosynthesizing organisms that trap energy from the sun to make their own food
producers
used to make DNA and RNA
nucleic acids
one organism benefits while the other is harmed
parasitism
one organism feeds on another organism
predation
energy is transferred from one organism to another in an ecosystem through
food chains
a distinguishing feature of living organisms is that their cells can
divide and reproduce exact copies of themselves
3 states of matter
solid, liquid and gas
the speed at which sound travels in air depends on the what of the air
temperature
mixture of mercury with some other metal and can be a solid or liquid, depending on the amount of mercury
amalgan
seperation into nearly mirror image halves by drawing an imaginary line lengthwise down the middle of the body
bilaterial symmetry
wheel like symmetry
radial symmetry
to fill their outer energy levels with electrons atoms
bond
a full outer energy level makes and atom
chemically stable
all chemical bonds involve interactions between electrons in the energy levels what from the nucleus
farthest
the outer electrons determine an atoms
chemical behavior
atom's outermost electrons determine its ability to what with other atoms
react
force holding two atoms or ions together is called a
chemical bond
an atom that gains or loses an electron is called a
ion
electrons have both what types of energy
kinetic and potential
electron's move about the nucleus in different energy levels. the more energetic electrons are found what from nucleus
farthest
genetic information is passed on to offspring in process called
heredity
living things maintain relatively stable internal condition through process called
homeostasis
process in which living things use energy to grow
metabolism
evolution occurs by means of
mutation
energy used by living things on earth comes from the
sun
smallest unit of an element
atom
isotopes of the same element differ in the number of
neutrons
vibrations of earth's crust are called
earthquakes
occurs when rocks under stress suddenly shift along a fault
earthquakes
force that can change the size and shape of rocks
stress
movement of earth's lithospheric plates
plate tectonics
how long does earth's revolution take
365.24 days or 1 year
how long does earth's rotation takes
24 hours or 1 day
states that the force of attraction between any two objects upon their masses and the distance between then
law of gravitation
force of attraction that exists between all matter in the universe
gravity
just as atoms can be joined to form molecules, molecules can be joined to build
macromolecules
the primary component of all macromolecules is
carbon
in a plant pollen is produced in
anther
the study of the origin, history, and structure of solid earth and the processes that shape it is called
geology
bending, tilting and breaking of the earth's crust
deformation
oceanic and continental crust and the rigid upper mantle makes up the
lithosphere
hypothesis that continents were once connected in large land mass but drifted apart
contintental drift
imaginary straight line through earth from north to south pole
axis
solid earth makes up the
geosphere
fraction of earth oceans cover
three fourths
the hiv virus affects which type of cells
helper t cells
the atomic mass is determined by the number of
protons
connect bone to bone
ligaments
connect bone to muscle
tendons
plant hormone most closely associated with stress
abscisic acid
reaction when two compounds react and an echange occurs
double replacement or double displacement reaction
reaction when an element reacts with a compound and an exchange takes place
single replacement or single displacement reaction
on the periodic table group 1A are the
alkali metals
on the periodic table group 2A are the
alkaline earth metals
on the periodic table group 5A are the
pnictogens
group 6A of the periodic table
chalcogens
group 7A of the periodic table
halogens
group 8A of the periodic table
noble gases
as velocity of a fluid increases the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases
bernoulli's principle
an object immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid the object displaces
archimedes principle
meth
1 carbon atom
eth
2 carbon atoms
prop
3 carbon atoms
but
4 carbon atoms
pent
5 carbon atoms
hex
6 carbon atoms
hept
7 carbon atoms
oct
8 carbon atoms
non
9 carbon atoms
dec
10 carbon atoms
3 types of motion
rotational, linear,and vibration
the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely porportional to its mass
newton's second law of motion
when one object exerts a force on a second object the second object will exert a force on the first that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction
newton's third law of motion
molecules move across the cell membrane from area of lower concentration to area of higher concentration
active transport
any pressure applied to a confined fluid at any point is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid
pascal principle
when two or more different substances react to form one compound
synthesis reaction or combination reaction
released to the atmosphere as waste products by bacteria
nitrogen
4 basic chemical reaction types
synthesis , decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement
diffusion of molecules across the cell membrane with help of protiens in cell membrane
facilitated diffusion
the flow of electrical energy from a source to a load
electricity
any device that transforms electrical energy into other forms of energy
load
electrical energy is transported in the form of an
electrical current
when an object or body is moved from one place to the next
motion
motion along the x coordinate
linear motion
motion along the y coordinate
vertical motion or free fall
constant acceleration can be quantified using a series of equation called
equations of kinematics
two main types of energy
potential and kinetic
energy of motion
kinetic energy
motion about a fixed point
vibration
DNA is packaged into chromosomes inside the what of a cell
nucleus
in a chemical equation reactants are written on
left
in a chemical equation products of the reaction are written on the
right
in the chemical equation the arrow shows that
a reaction is taking place
displays elements their atomic number, elemental symbol and atomic mass
periodic table
the number of protons in a nucleus is called the element's
atomic number
an atom that gain or loses electrons
ion
the force holding two atoms or ions together
chemical bond
force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic bond
when two atoms share one or more electrons
covalent bond
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecule
plays structural role in organisms
proteins
two types of nucleic acids
RNA and DNA
double helix
DNA
DNA exists in numerous different segments. these segments, along with proteins, form compact bodies called
chromosomes
serve as scaffolds for the assembly of all the different proteins in the cell
RNA
when electrons absorb energy they move to
higher energy levels
when electrons release energy they fall to
lower energy levels
organisms use to store energy and provide structural support
carbohydrates
a polar molecule
water
molecule that has a partial negative charge on one side and a partial positive charge on the other side
polar molecule
these protiens transmit information into the cell by reacting to certain other molecules
receptors
simple cell that lacks a nucleus
prokaryote
plant cells store waste products, nutrients, and water in large centrally located membrane bound spaces called
vacuoles
water molecules attract other
water molecules
mixing of two substances by the random motion of molecules
diffusion
the movement of molecules from high to lower concentration
diffusion
does not require energy to move substances into cells
facilitated diffusion
requires energy to move substances to a region of higher concentration
active transport
cytoplasm divides to form two distinct cells
cytokinesis
disease in which cells grow and divide at an abnormally high rate
cancer
chemical reaction that requires net release of energy
exergonic
chemical reaction that requires net input of energy
endergonic
makes a reaction proceed faster without themselves being used up during the reaction
catalyst
causes faster reaction because of lower activation energy
enzyme
light consists of tiny packets of energy called
photons
molecules that absorb light
pigments
process in which an atom or molecule loses an electron
oxidation
process in which an atom or molecule gains an electron
reduction
organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait
homozygous
organisms that have two different alleles for that same trait
heterozygous
directs the formation of proteins
RNA
during what an RNA copy of a gene is made
transcription
during what three different kind of RNA work together to assemble amino acids into a protein molecule
translation
able to regulate their body temperature through internal mechanisms
endotherms
cannot regulate their temperature internally and must absorb heat from their surroundings
ectotherms
animals with five flexible fingers
primates
carry their own DNA and reproduce independently of cell's chromosomes
mitochondria
study of how organisms fit into their environment
ecology
eat both plants and animals
omnivores
tropical rainforests, savannas, deserts, temperate grasslands, deciduous forests, coniferous forests and tundra are examples of
biomes
organisms such as plants that make their own food
autotrophs
cannot make their own food
heterotrophs
absorb nitrogen gas and convert it to ammonia
bacteria
process of transforming nitrogen gas into ammonia
nitrogen fixation
when two or more species evolve in response to each other
coevolution
close long term association between two or more species
symbiosis
kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, species are in what order
largest to smallest
group of similiar cells organized into a functional unit
tissue
collections of different kinds of tissue that are dedicated to one function
organs
transport oxygen
red blood cells
protect against infection
white blood cells
help clotting
platelets
defind by proteins on the surface of red blood cells
blood type
carry blood away from the heart
arteries
carry blood back to the heart
veins
returns fluids back to the blood vessels
lymphatic system
what keep the planets orbiting the sun in elliptical paths
combination of inertia and gravity
june 20 or 21 when northern hemisphere has its longest day and southern hemisphere has its shortest day, sun reaches the highest point in the sky refers to
summer solstice
december 21 or 22 when sun seems lower in the sky, the shortest day of the year in the northern hemisphere and the longest day of the year in the southern hemisphere refers to
winter solstice
when day and night are equal all over the world
equinoxes
when the new moon comes directly between the sun and the earth, as the earth moves into the moons shadow, sunlight is blocked from reaching the earth
solar eclispe
earth comes directly between the sun and the full moon
lunar eclispe
percent of atmosphere nitrogen makes up
71%
percent of atmosphere oxygen makes up
21%
returned to the atmosphere when dead animals and plants decay
nitrogen
second most abundant gas in the atmosphere
oxygen
layers of earth from closest to furthest
troposhere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere
area around the earth that extends beyond the atmosphere
magnetosphere
solid earth
lithosphere
deepest part of the ocean, long, narrow crevices
trenches
mountain ranges under oceans
midocean ridges
up and down movement of the ocean
waves
steady movement of the oceans
currents
rise and fall of the ocean
tides
highest point of wave
crest
lowest point of a wave
trough
caused by gravitational attraction among the earth, moon , and sun
tides
caused mainly by wind patterns
surface currents
caused by differences in the density of ocean water
deep currents
water changes to water vapor
evaporation
water vapor changes back to water
condensation
lines on a map or globe that run between north and south poles
meridian
meridian that runs through greenwich england
prime meridian
distance east and west of the prime meridian
longitude
lines from east to west across a map or globe
parallels
parallel located halfway between the north and south poles
equator
measure of distance north and south of the equator
latitude
earth's crust forms the upper part of the
lithosphere
layer directly beneath the lithosphere
asthenosphere
sudden movement of the earth's outermost layer
earthquake
shock waves produced by an earthquacke
seismic waves
layer of earth that lies above the outer core and beneath earth's crust
mantle
a break or crack along which rocks move
fault
bend in a rock
fold
breaking, tilting and folding of rocks
deformation
squeezes the rocks of the crust together
compression
pulls the rocks of the crust apart
tension
pushes two parts of the crust in opposite directions, causing the rocks of the crust to twist or tear apart
shearing
break along which rocks do not move
joint
block of rock above a fault
hanging wall
block of rock below a fault
foot wall
valleys formed when the block of land between two normal faults slides downward
rift valleys
deep within the earth, under tremendous pressure and at extreme temperatures, rock exists as hot liquid called
magma
when magma reaches the earth's surface it is called
lava
volcanoes mad mostly of cinders and other rock particles that have been blown into the air
cinder cones
volcanoes composed of quiet lava flows
shield volcanoes
volcanoes built up of alternating layers of rock particles and lava
composite volcanoes
most common cause of earthquakes
faulting
giant sea waves caused by earthquakes on ocean floor
tsunamis
underground point of origin of an earthquake
focus
located on the earth's surface directly above the focus
epicenter
three types of seismic waves
primary (P), secondary (S), and surface (L) waves
strength of an earthquake is measured on the
richter scale
place where magma reaches the earth's surface
volcanoe
opening from which lava erupts
vent
giant single landmass earth once was
pangaea
as the ocean floor moves away on either side of the ridge lava wells up and hardens, the hardened lava forms new ocean floor in a process called
ocean floor spreading
helps to explain continental drift
ocean floor spreading
deep V shaped valleys
trenches
process in which crust plunges back into the earth
subduction
destroyed when it is subducted into trenches and melted inside the mantle
ocean floor
ages of the ocean floor rocks and magnetic stripes of the ocean floor are evidence of
ocean floor spreading
matter can be classified onto 3 forms
elements, compounds and mixtures
two or more substances physcially combined
mixture
minerals or combinations of minerals from which metals and nonmetals canbe removed in usable amounts
ores
rocks which were originially hot, fluid magma within the earth
igneous
rocks formed from particles that have been carried along and deposited by wind and water
sedimentary
rocks formed when chemical reactions, tremendous heat and or pressure change existing rocks into new kinds of rocks
metamorphic
rocks formed from lava
extrusive rocks
rocks formed deep within the earth
intrusive rocks
may be formed from igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rocks
metamorphic rocks
breaking down of rocks and other materials on the earth's surface
weathering
layer of rock beneath soil
bedrock
decaying material
humus
formed when rocks are continuously broken down by weathering
soil
caused by gravity, wind, running water, glaciers, and waves
erosion
the powerful force of waves constantly erodes and shapes the
shoreline
the sun's energy that is absorbed by the earth is spread throughout the atmosphere in three basic ways
conduction, convection, and radiation
energy that is neither reflected nor absorbed by the atmosphere and reaches the earth surface and changed to heat
radiant
direct transfer of heat energy from one substance to another
conduction
transfer of heat energy in a fluid (gas, liquid or air)
convection
used to measure wind
anemometer
form when moisture in the air condenses on small particles of dust or other solids in the air
clouds
transferred by conduction, convection or radiation
heat energy
measure of distance north or south of the equator
lattitude
basic factors that determine climate
temperature and precipitation
lattitude, elevation, and the presence of ocean currents are factors that affect
temperature
prevailing winds and the presence of moutain ranges are factors that affect
precipitation
biomes that are not determined by climate
aquatic or water
small pieces of rocks, shells, and other materials that were broken down over time
sediments
fossils that reveal much about an animal's appearance without showing any part of the animal
trace fossils
states that in a series of sedimentary rock layers, younger rocks normally lie on top of older rocks
law of superposition
is used to dertermine whether a fossil or a layer of rock is older or younger than another fossil or layer of rock
law of superposition
driving force behind evolution
mutation
energy produced from the heat energy within the Earth itself
geothermal energy
combining of two atomic nuclei to produce one larger nucleus with the release of nuclear energy
nuclear fusion
energy locked within the atomic nucleus
nuclear energy
formed hundreds of millions of years abo from the remains of dead plants and animals
fossil fuels
over millions of years, heat and pressure changed sediments into rocks and the plant and animal remains into
fossil fuels
three main fossil fuels
coal, oil and natural gas