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34 Cards in this Set

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Humus
The decayed remains of once-living creatures.
Catastrophism
The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, etc.
Blind studies
Experiments in which the participants do not know whether or not they are a part of the control group.
Mechanical advantage
The amount by which force or motion is magnified in a simple machine.
Diameter
The length of a straight line that travels from one side of a circle to another, while passing through the center of a circle.
Double-blind studies
Experiments in which neither the participants nor the people analyzing the results know who is in the control group.
Weathering
The process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of nature.
Control (of an experiment)
The variable or part of the experiment to which all others can be compared.
Uniformitarianism
The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of slow, gradual processes that have been at work for millions or even billions of years.
Dendrochronology
The process of counting tree rings to determine the age of a tree.
Unconformity
A surface of erosion that separates one layer of rock from another.
Simple machine
A device that reduces the amount of force needed to perform a task or changes the direction of a force.
Papyrus
A primitive form of paper, made from a long-leafed plant of the same name.
Experimental variable
An aspect of an experiment which changes during the course of the experiment.
Absolute age
The calculated age of an artifact when a specific dating method is used to determine when the artifact was made.
Geology
The study of earth's history as revealed in the rocks that make up the earth.
Artifact
Objects made by humans such as tools, weapons, containers, etc.
Erosion
The process by which sediments and rock fragments are carried away by wind or rain.
Life science
A term that encompasses all scientific pursuits related to living organisms.
Minerals
Inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth.
Radiometric dating
Using a radioactive process to determine the age of an item.
Hypothesis
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
Circumference
The distance around a circle, equal to 3.1415 times the circle's distance.
Archaeology
The study of past human life as revealed by preserved relics.
Theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
Scientific law
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
Counter-example
An example that contradicts a scientific conclusion.
Known age
The age of an artifact as determined by a date printed on it, or a reference to a artifact in a work of history.
Force
A push or pull that changes the motion of an object.
The Principle of Superposition
When artifacts are found in rock or earth that is layered, the deeper layers hold the older artifacts.
Aristotle's dictum
The benefit of the doubt is to be given to the document itself, not assigned by the critic to himself.
Paleontology
The study of life's history as revealed in the preserved remains of once-living plants and animals.
Science
A branch of study dedicated to the accumulation and classification of observable facts in order to formulate general laws about the natural world
Spontaneous generation
The idea that living organisms can be spontaneously formed from non-living substances.