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105 Cards in this Set

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Additive Group Tasks
Permit the addition of individual efforts so that the outcome is a combination of individual contributions
Conjunctive Group Tasks
Everyone must achieve a given goal in order for the task to be complete
Disjunctive Group Tasks
The group must choose one of many alternative ways to do the task. Performance on the task is dependent on the performance of the most competent group member, because if one person can complete the task, the task gets completed.
Compensatory Group Tasks
The average performance of all group members represents the group’s product.
Pearson r
Allows you to assess the relationship between tow variables that are measured on a continuous (interval or ratio) scale. It is bivariate (i.e., for two variables) correlations coefficient used when variables are measured on an interval or ratio scale.
What is the best overall predictor of job success?
1) Cognitive ability tests
What is the effect of a restricted range either the predictor (IV) or criterion (DV)?
Tends to produce a low correlation coefficient.
What is Minuchin’s defn of Triangulation
A family boundary problem in which each parent demands that the child side w/him or her against the other parent.
Parametric Tests such as the one way ANOVA make what kinds of assumptions?
1) normal distribution of data
If the Independence of Observation assumption is violated, what kind of error would you be likely to make
Type I error (false rejection of the null hypothesis)
The formula for coefficient of determination is
Calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient and provides a more direct way of interpreting the calculated relationship between two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.
What is curriculum-based assessment
It provides info about a student in the context of the existing curriculum. The results indicate the student’s performance level as well as providing feedback about the instruction itself so that necessary changes can be made to better fit the student’s ability and current knowledge.
What is norm-referenced assessment
It involves evaluating a student’s performance by way of a comparison to other students. It is not designed to bring about changes in the curriculum itself, rather, it’s purpose is to help identify progress in terms of the existing curriculum and any change in instruction that would aid the student’s progress in completing that curriculum.
What is countertransference?
Refers to the therapist’s transference responses to the patient. According to psychoanalytic thought, a therapist’s analysis of his own countertransference rxns can help the therapist recognize subtle aspects of the transference r’ship and better understand the patient’s experience.
Paradoxical Intention
Bxl technique that is similar to the paradoxical technique used by family therapists, but differs in terms of its theoretical underpinnings. Bx therapists’ version is based on the assumption that a person avoids a certain bx, a condition of incompatibility is set up and this condition serves to eliminate the anticipatory anxiety. The idea is that engaging in the behavior (or a wish to engage in it) is incompatible with fear of that bx and, consequently, the fear is neutralized.
Ethical Standard 4.04
The psychologist discusses these issues w/the patient or client…in order to minimize the risk of confusion and conflict, consults w/the other service providers when appropriate, and proceeds w/ caution and sensitivity to the therapeutic issues. Thus, it is acceptable to make an appointment discuss the issue of seeing 2 psychologists w/the patient.
Is there a genetic component to most personality disorders?
Most experts believe that there is probably some genetic influence on most Personality Disorders, if for no other reason than there is some genetic influence on most aspects of personality in general. However, evidence of a genetic basis of antisocial P.D. is well established. Prevalence rates= 5-10 times higher in indivs w/first-degree relatives with the disorder compared to the general population. There’s also strong evidence of genetic component to Schizoid, Schizotypal, and paranoid P.D.
What is the best reliability coefficient
Alternate forms coefficient. It is also likely to have a lower magnitude than the other types of reliability coefficients. It is the best bc, for it to be high, the test must demonstrate consistency across both a time interval and different content (alternate test).
What is a characteristic of both depressed indivs and anxious individuals?
Self-absorption.
Positive and Negative life events have what affect on the individual?
They can create joy or distress but don’t really affect a person’s long-term sense of satisfaction and well-being. Only recent life events influence a person’s well-being and the effect drops off in about 3 months.
Ego defensive functions (per Ego Analysts)
Are used to resolve conflicts and are similar to the traditional Freudian concept of ego functions.
Ego Autonomy (per Ego Analysts)
Include adaptive, non-conflict –laden functions such as learning, memory, speech, and perception.
Neuroleptics
Are the major tranquilizers administered for the schizophrenic disorders.
Lithium
Man drug used for mania
Antidepressants
Work well for treating depression and, in some individuals, for panic
Mahler’s take on separation and individuation
A child must separate and individuate so that he or she can move from being part of a mother-child unit to being a member of a family. Separation = child disengages and differentiates from the mother. Individuation = occurs when the child develops an inner representation of the mother, an ability to test reality, a sense of time, and an awareness of the existence of others as distinct from him or herself.
Bem’s theory of androgyny
Factors are uncorrelated or independent of each other (orthogonal). If, however, the dimensions do have some correlations, then the dimensions are oblique. Masculinity and femininity are orthogonal bc one dimension does not predict how much of the other he or she will have.
What is the effect of drugs on REM?
Most drugs suppress REM sleep. When REM is suppressed, a sudden rebound effect occurs soon after the removal of the suppressing agent.
The paired comparison technique
Is specific, but time-consuming.
Order of merit comparisons
The rater rank orders the people in terms of some criterion, such as overall job performance.
What is the leading cause of industrial accidents?
What people do or don’t do.
Sample mean distribution
Consists of sample means obtained from many different equally sized samples of the same population. The variance (i.e., dispersion, or variability) of this distribution is smaller than the variances of scores collected from one sample or the scores of the entire population.
It has not been shown conclusively that the predictive validity coefficients of various standardized tests are differentially moderated by ethnic group membership.
A test is likely to have the same validity coefficient for all subgroups of the same populations—even though those subgroups may score differently, on the average , from each other.
Relationship bn job selection measures and the job or criterion
The closer the test or selection measure is related to the job or criterion, the more valid the procedure will be. Even though test scores may be moderated by group differences (e.g., A-As differ from Caucasians), the predictions made from the test scores are similarly valid as long as the content of the test relates to the job being selected for.
Wide scatter around the regression line or variance means
A lot of variance around the regression line indicates that the correlation isn’t too high.
What does a test’s reliability do?
Sets an upper limit on its criterion-related validity. A test’s validity coefficient can never be higher than the square root of its reliability coefficient.
Ethical principles and solicitation
They do not ban solicitation, except for cases where the individual is susceptible to undue influence.
What factors contribute to better adjustment for chronically ill children?
1)the higher the level of parental support the better
What measure predicts later IQ in infants?
While standard developmental scales don’t do it, a baby’s responses to a visual attention task does. How much time it takes the baby to assimilate a novel stimulus is moderately predictive of later IQ since, hypothetically, the mental functioning involved is similar.
Correlations bn predictors and criterions
Need to have a high correlation between the two. Also need to have predictors that are more or less independent from each other; they shouldn’t correlate.
R’ship bn high test anxiety and school performance
High test anxiety will be associated with low performance. Although moderate levels of anxiety are associated with optimal performance.
Ethics of getting involved in an extra-therapeutic role w/a client
Specialty guidelines state that a psychologist could, when appropriate, actively intervene on behalf of clients. Becoming an advocate for your patient, when appropriate, is not the same thing as entering into a multiple r’ship, especially if it involves truthfully presenting the facts about the client’s mental state.
Effects of increasing age on female sexual activity
According to Masters & Johnson, increasing age causes only relatively minor changes in female sexuality. Sexual desire and the ability to reach orgasm do not decrease w/age. In fact, orgasmic capacity increases as females age. Lubrication does diminish w/age, which may make intercourse uncomfortable.
Effects of maternal anxiety on a fetus
High levels of maternal distress can cause poor outcome in some cases; but the r’ship is not nearly as strong as it is for maternal alcohol or cigarette use.
When would you have adverse impact?
Since there are significant and consistent differences in mean ability scores between minority and Caucasian populations, this would be translated into differences in hiring rates when ability tests are used in job selection. Thus, you’d likely have adverse impact.
Centralized Communication Networks
In these type of networks, all communication goes thru one person (usually the person in charge).
The ability to be hypnotized
Is sthg that is inherent to the person. Some people are more suggestible than others. And this trait is maintained across situations.
Ethical dilemma re: consulting for a company and the employees tested
The psychologist has a responsibility to the person assessed as well as to the company paying for the assessment. This is especially true since the purpose of the assessment was to determine someone’s future career. Just bc the company paid,
Pearson r
Allows you to assess the relationship between tow variables that are measured on a continuous (interval or ratio) scale. It is bivariate (i.e., for two variables) correlations coefficient used when variables are measured on an interval or ratio scale.
What is the best overall predictor of job success?
1) Cognitive ability tests
What is the effect of a restricted range either the predictor (IV) or criterion (DV)?
Tends to produce a low correlation coefficient.
What is Minuchin’s defn of Triangulation
A family boundary problem in which each parent demands that the child side w/him or her against the other parent.
Parametric Tests such as the one way ANOVA make what kinds of assumptions?
1) normal distribution of data
If the Independence of Observation assumption is violated, what kind of error would you be likely to make
Type I error (false rejection of the null hypothesis)
The formula for coefficient of determination is
Calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient and provides a more direct way of interpreting the calculated relationship between two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.
What is curriculum-based assessment
It provides info about a student in the context of the existing curriculum. The results indicate the student’s performance level as well as providing feedback about the instruction itself so that necessary changes can be made to better fit the student’s ability and current knowledge.
What is norm-referenced assessment
It involves evaluating a student’s performance by way of a comparison to other students. It is not designed to bring about changes in the curriculum itself, rather, it’s purpose is to help identify progress in terms of the existing curriculum and any change in instruction that would aid the student’s progress in completing that curriculum.
What is countertransference?
Refers to the therapist’s transference responses to the patient. According to psychoanalytic thought, a therapist’s analysis of his own countertransference rxns can help the therapist recognize subtle aspects of the transference r’ship and better understand the patient’s experience.
Paradoxical Intention
Bxl technique that is similar to the paradoxical technique used by family therapists, but differs in terms of its theoretical underpinnings. Bx therapists’ version is based on the assumption that a person avoids a certain bx, a condition of incompatibility is set up and this condition serves to eliminate the anticipatory anxiety. The idea is that engaging in the behavior (or a wish to engage in it) is incompatible with fear of that bx and, consequently, the fear is neutralized.
Ethical Standard 4.04
The psychologist discusses these issues w/the patient or client…in order to minimize the risk of confusion and conflict, consults w/the other service providers when appropriate, and proceeds w/ caution and sensitivity to the therapeutic issues. Thus, it is acceptable to make an appointment discuss the issue of seeing 2 psychologists w/the patient.
Is there a genetic component to most personality disorders?
Most experts believe that there is probably some genetic influence on most Personality Disorders, if for no other reason than there is some genetic influence on most aspects of personality in general. However, evidence of a genetic basis of antisocial P.D. is well established. Prevalence rates= 5-10 times higher in indivs w/first-degree relatives with the disorder compared to the general population. There’s also strong evidence of genetic component to Schizoid, Schizotypal, and paranoid P.D.
What is the best reliability coefficient
Alternate forms coefficient. It is also likely to have a lower magnitude than the other types of reliability coefficients. It is the best bc, for it to be high, the test must demonstrate consistency across both a time interval and different content (alternate test).
What is a characteristic of both depressed indivs and anxious individuals?
Self-absorption.
Positive and Negative life events have what affect on the individual?
They can create joy or distress but don’t really affect a person’s long-term sense of satisfaction and well-being. Only recent life events influence a person’s well-being and the effect drops off in about 3 months.
Ego defensive functions (per Ego Analysts)
Are used to resolve conflicts and are similar to the traditional Freudian concept of ego functions.
Ego Autonomy (per Ego Analysts)
Include adaptive, non-conflict –laden functions such as learning, memory, speech, and perception.
Neuroleptics
Are the major tranquilizers administered for the schizophrenic disorders.
Lithium
Man drug used for mania
Antidepressants
Work well for treating depression and, in some individuals, for panic
Mahler’s take on separation and individuation
A child must separate and individuate so that he or she can move from being part of a mother-child unit to being a member of a family. Separation = child disengages and differentiates from the mother. Individuation = occurs when the child develops an inner representation of the mother, an ability to test reality, a sense of time, and an awareness of the existence of others as distinct from him or herself.
Bem’s theory of androgyny
Factors are uncorrelated or independent of each other (orthogonal). If, however, the dimensions do have some correlations, then the dimensions are oblique. Masculinity and femininity are orthogonal bc one dimension does not predict how much of the other he or she will have.
What is the effect of drugs on REM?
Most drugs suppress REM sleep. When REM is suppressed, a sudden rebound effect occurs soon after the removal of the suppressing agent.
The paired comparison technique
Is specific, but time-consuming.
Order of merit comparisons
The rater rank orders the people in terms of some criterion, such as overall job performance.
What is the leading cause of industrial accidents?
What people do or don’t do.
Sample mean distribution
Consists of sample means obtained from many different equally sized samples of the same population. The variance (i.e., dispersion, or variability) of this distribution is smaller than the variances of scores collected from one sample or the scores of the entire population.
It has not been shown conclusively that the predictive validity coefficients of various standardized tests are differentially moderated by ethnic group membership.
A test is likely to have the same validity coefficient for all subgroups of the same populations—even though those subgroups may score differently, on the average , from each other.
Relationship bn job selection measures and the job or criterion
The closer the test or selection measure is related to the job or criterion, the more valid the procedure will be. Even though test scores may be moderated by group differences (e.g., A-As differ from Caucasians), the predictions made from the test scores are similarly valid as long as the content of the test relates to the job being selected for.
Wide scatter around the regression line or variance means
A lot of variance around the regression line indicates that the correlation isn’t too high.
What does a test’s reliability do?
Sets an upper limit on its criterion-related validity. A test’s validity coefficient can never be higher than the square root of its reliability coefficient.
Ethical principles and solicitation
They do not ban solicitation, except for cases where the individual is susceptible to undue influence.
What factors contribute to better adjustment for chronically ill children?
1)the higher the level of parental support the better
What measure predicts later IQ in infants?
While standard developmental scales don’t do it, a baby’s responses to a visual attention task does. How much time it takes the baby to assimilate a novel stimulus is moderately predictive of later IQ since, hypothetically, the mental functioning involved is similar.
Correlations bn predictors and criterions
Need to have a high correlation between the two. Also need to have predictors that are more or less independent from each other; they shouldn’t correlate.
R’ship bn high test anxiety and school performance
High test anxiety will be associated with low performance. Although moderate levels of anxiety are associated with optimal performance.
Ethics of getting involved in an extra-therapeutic role w/a client
Specialty guidelines state that a psychologist could, when appropriate, actively intervene on behalf of clients. Becoming an advocate for your patient, when appropriate, is not the same thing as entering into a multiple r’ship, especially if it involves truthfully presenting the facts about the client’s mental state.
Effects of increasing age on female sexual activity
According to Masters & Johnson, increasing age causes only relatively minor changes in female sexuality. Sexual desire and the ability to reach orgasm do not decrease w/age. In fact, orgasmic capacity increases as females age. Lubrication does diminish w/age, which may make intercourse uncomfortable.
Effects of maternal anxiety on a fetus
High levels of maternal distress can cause poor outcome in some cases; but the r’ship is not nearly as strong as it is for maternal alcohol or cigarette use.
When would you have adverse impact?
Since there are significant and consistent differences in mean ability scores between minority and Caucasian populations, this would be translated into differences in hiring rates when ability tests are used in job selection. Thus, you’d likely have adverse impact.
Centralized Communication Networks
In these type of networks, all communication goes thru one person (usually the person in charge).
The ability to be hypnotized
Is sthg that is inherent to the person. Some people are more suggestible than others. And this trait is maintained across situations.
Ethical dilemma re: consulting for a company and the employees tested
The psychologist has a responsibility to the person assessed as well as to the company paying for the assessment. This is especially true since the purpose of the assessment was to determine someone’s future career. Just bc the company paid,
defn: illusion
A misperception of a real stimulus
Frame - of - reference training
Is used to improve RATER ACCURACY by teaching raters to focus on the various characteristics & requirements that contribute to good job performance
defn: sleeper effect
Some children, esp. girls who seemed well-adjusted immediately after the divorce of their parents, show significant problems in adolescence and early adulthood.
Effects of ethnic matching on tx outcome
Sue et al. learned that the effects of ethnic matching differes for different minority groups. Ethnic matching seems most beneficial for ASIAN- AND HISPANIC-AMERICANS.
Negative punishment
Is used to DECREASE bx by taking AWAY a stimulus. In time-out, undesirable bxs are reduced by taking away opportunities for positive reinforcement.
Approach - Avoidance
As the distance bn you and the goal decreases, the strength of the approach response and the avoidance response INCREASES. However, the avoidance gradient is steeper than the approach gradiant so eventually the avoidance response is much stronger. (Causing you to consider changing the exam date or changing careers).
What is a significant V-P split?
12 points.
Ex: PIQ > VIQ cb indicative of LD or autism or delinquency. However, wide scatter in the PIQ or VIQ could render this finding meaningless.
Adolescent suicide
Depression is very common amongh thaose who attmept or complete. Suicide risk is increased by the presence of hostile, aggressive, and other antisocial bxs and/or substance abuse.
Trend analysis
It is used to identify trends and requires a quantitative independent variable.
Borderline Intellectual Functioning
requires an IQ score ranging from 71 to 84. A score of 71 is lsightly less than two SD below the mean, and a score of 84 is slightly more than one SD below the mean.
gender differences goal-setting bx
Overal the predictions of goal setting theory are equally applicable to both genders. Although, there may be some minor differences. One study found females prefer mastery goals over social comparison goals.