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26 Cards in this Set

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Afferent Neurons
nerve cells that transmit information from sensory receptors to the CNS; often referred to as sensory neurons
Astrocytes
star-shaped non-neuronal cells of the CNS that encase the capillaries of the CNS, form the blood-brain barrier, and assist in provideing nutrients to the nerve cells
Axon Hillock
the unmyelinated region of the axon immediately adjacent to the cell body
Axon Terminals (terminal buttons)
localized swellings at the end of the axons where neurotransmitters are synthesized, stored and released
Axon
the single long extension from the cell body of a nerve cell that transmets electrical information away fro the nerve cell
Axonal Transport
the movement of vesicles between the soma and acon terminals by slow rhythmic (orthograde) or reverse (retrograde) direction
Axoplasmic Flow
the movement of materials from the cell body to the axon terminal by slow rhythmic contractions that move material from the soma to the axon hillock to the terminal buttons
Bipolar Neuron
a nerve cell that has a two processes, an acon and a dendrite, arising from the cell body
Blood-Brain Barrier
the permeability formed by tight junctions of the brain capillaies and astrocutes that preventspolar molecules from diffusing into the extracellular fluid of the brain
Cerebrospinal fluid
the plasma-like fluid filing that surrounds and fills the cavities of the central nervous sustem and functions to provide nutrients and protect the CNS
Dendrite
the numerous small extensions from the cell body that receive information from other nerve cells
Efferent Nerutons
nerve cells that transmit information away from the CNS to effector organs; often referred to as motor neurons
Ependymal cells
non-neuronal cells froming the epithelial lining of the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord that interact woth the cappilaries to form the choroids plexuses and produce cerbrospinal fluid
Glial cells
non-neuronal cells in the CNS that help regulate the environment of the central nervouse system
Interneuons
nerve cells located between other nerve cells; other referred to as association neurons
Microglia
motile non-neuronal phagocytic cells of the CNS that degrade foreign cells and damaged nerve cells
Multipolar Neuron
a nerve cell that has a single long axon and multiple smaller dendrites arising from the cell body
Myelin Sheath
layers of myelin-forming cell plasma membranes wrapped around the axon of many nerons in the ervouse system
Neuron (nerve cells)
a cell of the nervous system specialized to initiate, integrate, and conduct electrical signals
Neurotrophins
chemical messengers that stimulate nerve cell growth and health
Nodes of Rancier
gaps in the myelin sheath of myelinated axons
Oligodendrocytes
non-neuronal cells of that CNS that myelinae axons
Pseudounipolar Neuron
a nerve cell that appears to have a single long extension that arises from a sigle short process from the nerve cell body
Regeneration tube
the proximal end of an injured axon surrounded bya basement membrane and Schwann cells
Satellite Cells (gagnlionic gliocytes)
non-neuronal cells of the autonomic and sensory ganglia that provie structural and biochemical support for the nerve cells
Schwann Cells
non-neuronal cells of the peripheral nervous system that myelinate peripheral axons