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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
environmentally induced improvement in the functioning of a physiological system in the absence of genetic change
Adenylate Cyclas
a membrane-bound enzyme hat catalyzes the production of cyclic adenoine monophospate and pyrophospgate by dyfolyzin adenosine triphosphate
Adrenergic Receptors
receptors that bind epinephrine agonists, and epinephrine antagonists
Autocrine Agent
a chemical messenger that acts on the secreting cell
Biological Rhythm
the rhythmicpatterns in specific physiological parameters produced by variations in set points due to specific environmental cues
Blood Plasma
the fluid portion of blood
Cholinergic Receptors
receptors that bind acetylocholine, acetylcholine agonists, and acetlcholine anatagonists
Circadian Rhythm
physiological changes repeating with an approximate frequency of 24 hours
the decrease in cellular volume due to water loss
Develpmental Acclimatization
acclimatization during critical developmental periods for specific systems
Diurnal Rhythm
a biological rhythm based on changes in light and dark
setting the timing of a bilogical rhythm
Extracellular Fluid
the fluid located iwthing the body outside of the cell membranes
Free Running Rhythm
a biological rhythm in the absence of any external cues
a trimeric protein that is regulated by guanosine nucleotides
a dimer comprised of two diferent subunits
the state of equilibrium of the inernal enviroment of the body that is maintained by dynamic processes of feeback and regulation
dimer comprised of identical subunits
having a greater osmolality concentration
having a lower osmolality concentration
Interstitial Fluid
the fluid found in the spaces between the cells
Intracellular Fluid
the fluid located within the cells of the body
Ion channel
a protein that regulates the passage of specific ions through the plasma membrane
alternate forms of the same receptor
having the same osmolality concentration
the bursting of a cellular membrane to water gain
Mass to volume Solution
a method of expressing the solution concentration as the mass of solute per 100 milliliters of solvent
the number of moles of a substance per liter of solution
Muscarinic Receptors
Cholinergic receptors that bind low doses of muscarine
Negative Feedback
a feedback response that opposes the input response
Nicotonic Receptors
cholinergic receptors that bind low doses of nicotine
sensory receptors that detect changes in the osmolality
Osmotic Pressure
the amount of pressure required o prevent the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a lower osmolarity to one with a higher osmolarity
Paracrine Agent
a chemical messenger that acts on cells near the cell secreting the chemical messenger
Phase Shift
a change in a biological rhythm due to changes in the external cues
an enzyme that degrades cyclic nucleotides into inactive products
Phospholipase C
a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the production of diacyl glycerol and inositol triphosphate bu hydrolyzing phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate
the study of the function of the living organism and its components and of the chemical and physical processes involved
Positive Feedback
a feedbck response that favors the input response
Protein Kinase
an enzyme that phosphorylates proteins
Reflex Arc
neural or hormonal components that mediate a reflex
Reflx Response
the final chnge due to the action of a stimulus upon a reflex are
a biological control system linking a stimulus with a response medicated by a reflex arc
Response Element
the specific DNA sequence to which the dimerized hormone-receptor complexes bind to regulate gene expression
Second Messenger
a molecule or ion hose concentration within a target cell is changed by the actions of a chemical messenger to alter the metabolism or activity of the target cell in the characteristic manner
Total Body Water
all of the water in the body