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74 Cards in this Set

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Define Absorption
The process by which medications enter the body.
Define Acetylcholine
A Cholinergic neurotransmitter that crosses the synapse to reach a post synaptic neuron or effector organ; is also affected in organophosphate and nerve agent poisoning.
Define Agonist
Drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response
What is the American Hospital Formulary Service?
A source of drug information that contains concise information arranged according to drug classification.
What is the American Medical Association Drug Evaluation?
A set of standards for evaluating drugs.
Define Anaphylactic reaction.
A severe allergic response to a foreign substance that the patient has had contact with before.
Define Antagonist.
Drugs that attach to a receptor but do not stimulate a response or prevent a response.
What is atropine?
A cardiac drug that blocks discharge from the parasympathetic nervous system, resulting in increased heart rate.
What is the autonomic Nervous system?
A specialized subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions of the body.
What is Biotransformation?
Changes of a drug's free components into substances for elimination of the body.
Define Buccal medication.
A drug dissolved between the cheek and the gum. It is absorbed across the mucous membrane of the mouth.
Define Chemical Name.
Drug name that gives the exact description of the chemical structure of the drug.
What is the Controlled substances act?
An act passed in 1970 that regulates the manufacture and distribution of drugs whose use may result in dependency.
Define Cross - tolerance
An increase in tolerance to other drugs in the same class.
Define Cumulative effect.
Increasing by steps with an eventual total that may go past the expected result.
Define Delayed reaction.
A hypersensitivity reaction similar to an allergy.
Define Distribution
Moves the drug from the bloodstream into the tissues and fluids of the body.
Define Drug
A substance taken into the body to affect change to one or more body functions, often to prevent or treat a disease or condition.
Define Drug action.
The cellular change produced by a drug.
Define drug allergy.
Allergy to a drug shown by reactions ranging from a mild rash to severe allergic reaction and shock.
Define Drug dependence.
A physical state where withdrawal symptoms occur when a person discontinues the use of drugs.
Define Drug Effect.
Degree of a drug's physiological change.
What is the Drug enforcement agency?
The DEA Was established in 1970, the DEA deals with controlled substances only and enforces laws against manufacture, sale and use of illegal drugs.
What is a Drug insert?
Literature found in al drug packages; supplies detailed information about the drug.
Define drug tolerance.
When the body becomes accustomed to a particular drug over a period of time.
Define drug toxicity.
Results from overdosage, ingestion of a drug intended for external use, or buildup of the drug in the blood due to impaired metabolism or excretion.
Define drug withdrawal.
A set of signs and symptoms that develop in a person after abrupt cessation of taking a drug
What is enteral?
The administration of a drug along any portion of the GI Tract.
Define Excretion.
The elimination of waste products from the body.
What is the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic act?
An amended act requiring that safety of a drug must be proven before it can be distributed to the public; also requires that labels be used to list the possible habit-forming properties and side effects of drugs.
Define Generic Name.
The nonproprietary designation of a drug.
What is the Harrison Narcotic act of 1914?
The first federal legislation designed to stop drug addiction or dependence.
Define Hypersensitivity.
Allergy to a drug shown by reactions ranging from a mild rash to severe allergic reaction and shock; also called drug allergy.
What is an Idiosyncratic reaction?
An abnormal or unexpected reaction to a drug peculiar to a certain patient. This is not technically an allergy.
Define intradermal.
An injection of a drug within the dermis.
Define Intralingual.
Injection of a drug within the tongue.
Define Intramuscular.
Injection of a drug within the muscle.
Define Intraosseous
administration of medication directly into the bone marrow of a long bone.
Define Intrathecal.
Injection of a drug through the theca of the spinal cord into the subarachnoid space.
What is intravenous cannulation?
The placement of a catheter into a vein.
What is a Local effect?
Limited to the area where it is administered.
What is the Narcotic Act?
The act that made the possession of Heroine or Marijuana illegal.
What is nasal administration?
The injection of a drug or substance into the nasal mucosa.
What is the official name of a drug?
The drug name that is listed in one of the official publications.
What is the parasympathetic division?
Part of the nervous system that originates in the brain and sends messages to affect organs by the cranial nerves. It affects the heart, stomach and GI tract, also called the Cholinergic division.
Define Parenteral.
Drugs administered into the body by subcutaneous, Intramuscular or IV routes.
What is a Partial agonist?
Drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response or buy inhibit other responses.
What is pharmacodynamics?
The study of the effects of drugs on the body.
Define Pharmacokinetics.
The movement of the drugs through the body, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
Define Pharmacology
The study of Drugs and their effects and actions on the body.
Define potentiation.
One drug prolongs or multiplies the effect of another drug.
What is a side effect?
Any effect of a drug that is unintended.
Define subcutaneous.
Under the skin
Define sublingual
Under the tongue
What is the sympathetic division?
A part of the nervous system whose primary effect is to increas the heart rate, bronchiole dilation, and increased metabolism and strength; also called the adrenergic division.
Define Tachyphlaxis
Rapid developement of tolerance.
Define Tolerance.
An individual's capacity to endure medications.
What is the trade name?
The brand of the drug that is registered by the US Patent office.
Define Transdermal.
Through the skin.
Most drugs are eliminated by the ____ or metabolized by the ____.
kidneys, liver
The basic principle of medicine is ....
"first, do no harm"
How does sympathetic simulation effect the heart?
Increases the rate and force of contractions.
Fight or flight is associated with which division of the nervous system?
Sympathetic.
What is the chemical neurotransmitter that conducts the electrical impulses across the synapse?
Norepinepherine.
What is the therapeutic threshold?
The minimum amount of drug needed in the bloodstream to cause a therapeutic effect.
What happens when the alpha adrenergic receptors are stimulated?
Vasoconstriction.
What happenes when Beta -1 receptors are stimulated?
Increase in hearts contractility and force.
What happens when the Beta - 2 receptors are stimulated?
Bhronchodilation.
Beta -2 Agonists are commonly used to treat what and why?
Asthma, They are Bhronchodilators.
What drugs Can be given down the ET Tube?
Lidocaine, Epinephrine, Atropine, Narcan. Remember the mnemonic LEAN.
What are the principal factors that affect absorption?
Nature of the absorbing surface, blood flow to the site of administration, solubility of the drug, pH, Drug concentration, Dosage form, Route, Bioavailibility, Diffusion, Filtration.
What is an Iatrogenic response?
Symptoms that mimic naturally occurring disease states due to certain drugs being administered.
Define Synergism.
Two drugs working together.
Define Potentiation.
One drug prolonging or multiplying the effect of another.