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31 Cards in this Set

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What is the number one question to ask yourself if contemplating leg amputation due to a mass in the brachial plexus?
Do the pelvic limbs should any neurological deficits?
-if has grown on spinal cord can look for conscious proprioception deficits on same side of hind leg to see if it has affected the UMNs
If you shine a light in the left eye and there's no constriction in the right or left eye, where is the lesion?
CN 2, optic nerve
If you shine a light in the right eye and there's no constriction in the right eye, but constriction in the left eye, where's the lesion?
Right oculomotor (CN3)
What is the pathway of pupillary constriction?
Shine light, it goes in through optic nerve, goes to midbrain to the pretectal area and stimulates the oculomotor nucleus---> out CN3 then goes to ciliary ganglion in eye socket and pupils constrict
What is the pathway of pupillary dilation?
Goes out optic n. runs all the way down spinal cord, decreased light stimulates rostral coliculi of midbrain and goes down spinal cord to T1-T3**** and comes out and goes up vagosympathetic trunk to cranial cervical ganglion behind jaw goes through **middle ear then goes to postganglionic sympathetic nerves on CN 5 and then get dilation
What does it mean if an animal with head trauma has one dilated eye and one constricted eye? What's the prognosis?
Unilateral oculomotor nuclear or nerve contusion or compression
-guarded prognosis
What does it mean if an animal with head trauma has two pinpoint pupils that are non-responsive to dark? Prognosis?
Means oculomotor nerve is working but have compression of midbrain
-guarded prognosis
What does it mean if an animal with head trauma has two dilated eyes that are non responsive to light? Prognosis?
means bilateral oculomotor nerve contusion or compression
-grave prognosis
Blind animals can also have dilated pupils, so how can you determine b/w a blind animal and an animal with bilateral oculomotor nerve contusion?
Do a menace response
-blind animals don't respond
What are the signs of Horner's syndrome in dogs and cats?
the symptoms generally include a sunken in eye (enophthalmia) with a small pupil (miosis), a droopy upper eyelid (ptosis) and a prominant third eyelid.
*What is different about horses with Horner's syndrome?
When get disruption of sympathetic innervation to the head they have sweating on the effected side
-dogs don't sweat, dry & hot from vasodilation
Why do horses with Horner's syndrome sweat?
Horses the receptors are Nepi receptors instead of acetylcholine so normal circulating epi and Nepi will sweat when lose sympathetic to one side of the body- get hypersensitivity of these sweat receptors bc they have been deinnervated so get sensitized to NT that should be there
***Explain the progression of signs as the spinal cord is compressed.
-1st loss: Proprioception
first conscious then unconscious
-2nd loss: Voluntary motor --> paresis, paralysis
3rd loss: touch & superficial pain ---> loss of cutaneous sensation
4th loss: deep pain: loss of deep pain
*comes back in opposite order
What is a withdrawl or flexion reflex?
Withdraws limb
-no other response
What is a pain response?
1. withdraws (flexes) limb
2. turns head and or
3. threatens to bite and/or
4. Tries to move away and/or
5. Whines or barks and/or
6. Interrupts respiratory pattern
What is the difference b/w a reflex (Withdrawl reflex) and a pain response?
-Reflex only depends on the reflex arc being intact
-pain response requires intact spinal cord and goes to the brain for perception
What does it mean if you pinch a limb and there's no withdrawl in that one limb only?
Localizes lesion to the reflex arc right where the lesion is
What does it mean if there's no withdrawl on the front and hind limbs when you pinch a dogs foot but can whimper and cry?
diffuse LMN disease, they still feel it but paralyzed
What does it mean if there's no pain response?
Interference with ascending massage
-can be either LMN or UMN lesion
what part of the spinal cord could be damaged if there's no pain response?
L4, L5, T13
-just means didn't get to brain
What is the prognosis of pain loss?
Means last to go in spinal cord: Dogs may walk again and never regain deep pain, but often incontinent (Exception not rule)
What has been reports as the first indicator post surgery or treatment that a dog will walk again after spinal injury?
VOLUNTARY wagging of the tail
What are 4 clinical signs of an animal with a peripheral vestibular disorder?
1) Head tilt
2) Weakness of ipsilateral extensor muscles
3) NO conscious prop deficits
4) Nystagmus
What are 4 clinical signs of an animal with a central vestibular disorder?
1) Head tilt
2) Weakness of ipsilateral extensor muscles
3) Loss of CP ipsilateral****
4) Nystagmus
**What are 2 ways to differentiate b/w a peripheral and central vestibular disorder?
1) Peripheral has a constant and unvarying nystagmus, central is inconstant and varying
2) Central has a loss of CP ipsilateral, peripheral doesn't
Does an animal with a central vestibular disorder have a normal menace response? Peripheral?
Both will be normal menace
What is paradoxical vestibular?
Where have lesion on right side but head tilts to the left and everything said left but conscious proprioception said right
Where is the conscious proprioception loss with paradoxical vestibular disease?
Ipsilateral side
-but head tilt to contralateral
How can you determine if circling is due to a vestibular disorder or cerebral cortex disorder?
Vestibular: menace present, weakness of ipsilateral extensors, CP deficits only if central brain lesion -ipsilateral
Cerebral cortex: NO menace, increased extensor tone
*CP deficits contralateral
What should come to mind when an animal is circling?
Vestibular or cortical
**What is the pathway for the menace response?
(threat) Optic nerve---> optic chiasm---> optic tract---> rostral colliculli--> lateral geniculate----> occipital cortex----> association cortex---> cerebellum---> motor cortex--> facial nerve (blink)