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50 Cards in this Set

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How can you differentiate radial nerve paralysis from brachial plexus paralysis?
Can pinch paw in autonomous zones and map out where sensory nerves are lost
-if can flex elbow musculocutaneous n is intact
-if no sensation below elbow all the way around= brachial plexus
What does it mean if an animal is desensitized right near the scapula at C6?
Rootlet evulsion= hopeless prognosis
True or false. The horse does not have a radial nerve autonomus zone.
True
How can you tell if musculocutaneous n is intact?
Animal can flex elbow
A dog has a very prominent zygomatic arch and the temporalis muscle is atorphied, what's the most likely diagnosis?
Cranial nerve V
What nerves innervate the eye?
CN3,4,6
-if cross eyed and then touch the eyeball and it doesn't pull back= CN 6 damaged
What is horner's syndrome? Causes?
Loss of sympathetic innervation to the eye
-can occur w/ brachial plexus problem, retrobulbar abscess, middle ear infection
What are the clinical signs of Horner's syndrome?
Eyelid up, dilated pupil, eye sits back in socket
What is the definition of a seizure?
An uncontrolled synchronous discharge of neurons
What part of the brain initiates seizures?
Prosencephalon
What do you call seizures that have a tendency to recur?
epilepsy
-idiopathic epilepsy if can't find lesion anywhere
What are prodomal signs? What are the post-icteral signs of a seizure?
Prodomal signs-means know seizure is coming
Post-icteral signs: dazed, may last up to an our
What are 4 changes in environment that alter the seizure threshold?
1) Structure of dendritic zones and their synapses
2) Nerve lipoprotein membrane and ionic channels
3) Electrolyte availability
-Na, Cl, Ca, K
4) Neurotransmitter concentration
What are 3 excitatory transmitters that can affect seizure threshold? 4 Inhibitory transmitters?
Excitatory: glutamate, aspartate, acetylcholine
Inhibitory: GABA, glycine, taurine and Nepi
What is a focal seizure?
Non-clinical discharge of small number of neuron
-seen on EEG w/ no spread
What is a partial seizure? Signs?
-Animal awake
-episodic tremors, head turning, limb flexion
-Facial muscle twitches, head & neck sporadic myoclonus
Why do partial seizures localize laterally usually from OPPOSITE motor cortex?
**Because motor activity crosses before getting to LMNs
What is a complex partial seizure?
Behavioral abnormalities present= psychomotor seizures
-full blown seizure
-behavior change= limbic system
What are the signs of a complex partial seizure?
-staring into space; maniacal running
-tail chasing; flank biting, fly or light biting
-abnormal aggression or rage
-brief loss of consciousness
-may go on to generalized seizure
What is the most common form of seizures?
Generalized= "grand mal" seizure
What are the clinical signs of a grand mal seizure?
-loss of consciousness
-tonic contraction of antigravity muscles w/ apnea
-jaw clinching or chewing movements
-recumbency w/ tonic/ clonic muscle activity (running movements)
-dilated +/- urinary & fecal excretions
How long do grand-mal seizures last?
30 s--> 3 minutes
-post-icteral depression/ blindness --> recovery 1 hr
What are 8 extracranial cases of seizures?
1) Hypoglycemia
-beta cell neoplasm
2) Hepatic encephalopathy
-young dugs= PSS
-any severe acquired liver dz
3) Electrolyte disorder
4) Chronic uremia
5) Hypoxia
6) Hyperlipidemia
7) Hyperthermia
8) Intestinal parasites in puppies
What are 5 intracranial causes?
1) Malformation
2) injury
3) Neoplasia
-most common older dogs
4) Inflammation
-granulomatous meningoencephalitis
5) Degeneration
-stroke, neonatal encephalopathy foals
What animals have a congenital problem with hyperlipidemia?
Schnauzers
What are the clinical signs of a grand mal seizure?
-loss of consciousness
-tonic contraction of antigravity muscles w/ apnea
-jaw clinching or chewing movements
-recumbency w/ tonic/ clonic muscle activity (running movements)
-dilated +/- urinary & fecal excretions
How long do grand-mal seizures last?
30 s--> 3 minutes
-post-icteral depression/ blindness --> recovery 1 hr
What are 8 extracranial cases of seizures?
1) Hypoglycemia
-beta cell neoplasm
2) Hepatic encephalopathy
-young dugs= PSS
-any severe acquired liver dz
3) Electrolyte disorder
4) Chronic uremia
5) Hypoxia
6) Hyperlipidemia
7) Hyperthermia
8) Intestinal parasites in puppies
What are 5 intracranial causes?
1) Malformation
2) injury
3) Neoplasia
-most common older dogs
4) Inflammation
-granulomatous meningoencephalitis
5) Degeneration
-stroke, neonatal encephalopathy foals
What animals have a congenital problem with hyperlipidemia?
Schnauzers
Idiopathic epilepsy is most common in what age of dogs?
6 mo to 6 years of age
What is it called when idiopathic epilepsy clusters together?
Status epilepticus
-intermittent then may increase w/ age
How do you diagnose idiopathic epilepsy?
Exclude other causes
What is the genetic component of idiopathic epilepsy?
Causes lowered seizure threshold
-autosomal recessive
What are 5 breeds with a genetic predisposition to idiopathic epilepsy?
1) German sheps
2) Golden retriever
3) English springer spaniel
4) Labrador retriever
5) Standard poodle
What is the definition of syncope? What causes it?
Sudden and transient loss of consciousness resulting in collapse, followed by spontaneous recovery
-Cause is transient cerebral deficiency of oxygen
What are 5 differentials for syncope?
1) Stroke- transient ischemic attacks
2) Narcolepsy
3) Myasthenia gravis
-congenital or acquired
4) Polyneuropathies
-coonhound paralysis
5) Neuromuscular disorders
What are 3 neuromuscular disorders that can cause syncope?
1) Botulism
2) Tick paralysis
3) HYPP
-muscle disorder in Na+ channel, too much Na results in partial depolarization
What is the damaged in a focal neuropathy? Focal myositis?
Neuropathy: LMN VS UMN
Myositis: masticatory muscles
What causes a diffuse neuropathy? Diffuse myositis?
Neuropathy: Polyneuropathy
Myositis: autoimmune
**What is a key difference in neuropathies vs myositis?
Myositis: increased liver enzymes
Does a neuropathy have EMG changes? Myositis?
Neuropathies have EMG abnormalities if been >5 days
Myositis: +/- EMG Changes
What is a clinical sign specific to LMN lesions?
Muscle atrophy
What is the nerve conduction velocity of neuropathies? Myositis?
Neuropathy: slow to absent
Myositis: normal
Is a biopsy a good diagnostic for a neuropathy? Myositis?
Neuropathy: can biopsy sensory nerve
Myositis: biopsy for definitive dx
What are 3 infectious causes of myositis?
Toxoplasma
Neospora
Leptospira
How can you easily differentiate UMN from LMN lesion?
reflexes:
-UMN= hyper and cross extension
-LMN= depressed to absent
What are 5 diffuse LMNs?
1) Coonhound paralysis
2) Botulism
3) Tick paralysis
4) Myasthenia gravis
5) Degenerative conditions
What is it called when you see signs of seizures on an EEG but don't see any clinical signs?
Focal seizure
You see an awake animal start turning its head, flexing its limbs, and sporadic myoclonus in the head and neck. What type of seizure is this?
Partial seizure