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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 7 types of diagnosis?
1) Differential
2) Tentative
-working
3) Presumptive
4) Etiological (agent)
5) Anatomic
6) Open (have no idea)
7) Undetermined
What are 4 methods to reaching a diagnosis?
1) Pattern recognition
2) Hypothetic-deductive reasoning
-algorithm
3) Exhaustive method
4) Problem-oriented
What is an example of a condition that can be diagnosed via pattern recognition?
Endocrine alopecia- Cushing's
-more you see it the recognize it, problem is won't recognize if never seen before
What is the method hypothetic-deductive reasoning?
Think of as a path that you follow with your thinking and is guided by diagnostic work ups
What is the exhaustive method of diagnosis?
Go back and exam the patient over and over again and rule everything out- look at everything you can think of and hopefully find something
-Time is a huge issue here
Problem-oriented diagnostics is a subcategory of the _______ method.
Exhaustive method
What is the problem-oriented diagnostic method?
-Expanded by hypothetic-deductive method: sequence of reasoning from one exam to the next
-Rigid sequence: have to take 1 step after the next and forces you to think and explain
-with experiences tart to skip steps
-problems pursued independently
When is problem-oriented diagnostics used?
With teaching: reasoning is apparent bc everything is in order and eases communication
What does the initial database of the problem-oriented method of diagnostics include?
1) Detailed history
-everything
-ask same question in different ways
2) Complete physical exam
When listing the problems (part of problem-oriented diagnostic approach) what does the problem consist of?
Everything that concerns:
-Patient
-Client
-Veterinarian
At what level should a problem-list be constructed?
At the level they're understood
e.g. abdominal distention VS abdominal mass VS neoplasia VS carcinoma
What are 3 components to describing a problem?
1) Chronicity (duration)
2) Character (describe)
3) Concern (severity, frequency)
Is anorexia, weight loss and lethargy good clinical signs to pivot the problem off of when trying to reach a diagnosis using the problem-oriented strategy?
No, because they're not specific to any disease
-want to make it specific to an organ or body system
What are the different ways to sub-group your differential diagnoses?
-where? e.g. abdominal mass
-what? e.g. pleural fluid
-DAMNIT
What does the D in DAMNIT stand for?
Degeneration
What does the A in DAMNIT mean?
Anomaly
What 3 things does the M in DAMNIT stand for?
1) Metabolic
2) Mechanical
3) Motor
What does the N in DAMNIT stand for?
Neoplasia, nutritional
What 6 things does the I in DAMNIT stand for?
1) Idiopathic
2) Iatrogenic
3) Inflammatory
4) infectious
5) immune mediated
6) Infarct (vascular)
What 3 things does the T in DAMNIT stand for?
1) Trauma
2) Toxins
3) Temperature
If you were to use the scheme DAMN IT VP, what does the VP stand for?
V: vascular
P: physical, physiological, pharmacological
You should rank your differentials according to what 5 things?
1) Age
2) Breed
3) Season
4) Gender
5) Chronicity
How should you formulate a diagnostic plan?
Rule-in or Rule-out
Prioritize
-most likely disease
-tests that split the differentials in half
-Good tests
-Non-invasive & cheap first
What are the 7 steps to a problem-oriented approach to diagnostics?
1) Obtain initial database
2) List problems
3) List differentials
4) Rank differentials
5) Formulate diagnostic plan
6) Formulate therapeutic plan
7) Update 2-6 as get results back
Where is the master problem list located in your records?
Front of medical record (index or table of contents)
-All problems should be listed
When recording a problem, what aspects should be included?
Sign, physiological abnormality, physical finding, laboratory abnormality
-number, date, problem, date of resolution or refinement
What makes a problem on the problem list a major problem?
Life-threatening
Life-altering
What defines a minor problem?
Acute, self-limiting, temporary
When do you keep progress notes on an animal in your records?
Hospitalized patients
-narrative progress of each problem
-Problems are numbered, dated and titled
-info entered chronologically
What does SOAPP stand for?
S: Subjective information
O: Objective data
A: Assessment
P: Plans (diagnostic & therapeutic)
P: Pain
What are 4 examples of subjective information?
1) History
2) Observations
3) Complaints
4) Activity
What are 3 examples of objective data?
1) Physical exam
2) Laboratory results
3) Other tests (that get to a number or give yes or no answer like a SNAP test)
What are 3 examples of assessment (SOAPP)?
1) Diagnosis
2) ID of the problem based on SO
3) Prognosis
What is included in the plan (SOAPP)?
1) Diagnostic plan
-Further diagnostic procedures
-List of rule-outs at the time
2) Therapeutic plan
-Plans for treatment
-Treatment actually performed including drug, dosages, length of therapy, goals of therapy
What are the two components of pain (SOAPP)?
Assess (SOA)
Treat
-planned therapy
-Therapy employed
When do you utilize the SOAPP method?
In the hospital