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43 Cards in this Set

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What are the 11 elements of a routine exam on a small animal?
1) Temperature, pulse
2) Respiration
-pulse character, respiratory noise, capillary refill time
3) Body weight
-Body condition score
4) External appearance
5) Oral exam
6) Palpable lymph nodes
7) Abdominal palpation
8) Otic exam
9) Ocular exam
10) External genitalia
11) Rectal exams
-Most adult male dogs
What are 6 non-routine exams performed on small animals?
1) Full neurological exam
2) Orthopedic exam
3) Vaginal exam on all species
-often have to sedate
4) Rectal exam on cats
5) Detailed ocular exam
6) Thorough dermatologic exam
A veterinarian should always live and die by _______.
Documentation
-as you go along or at least ASAP
How should you correct a mistake in your medical records?
With a single line and initial the changes
When does the physical exam begin?
As soon as you see the animal
-first initial impression can be very important
-introduce yourself and see how animal responds
Why is it so important to obtain an accurate body weight?
Most drugs are dosed in mg/kg
-should record weight in both pounds and kilograms
What should be included in patient history?
Why are they here?
Chronology, chronicity, progression
-other health issues
-What is animal doing while you take the history
What are the 5 ways to classify the mental state of the animal?
1) Bright, alert, responsive (BAR)
2) Quiet, alert, responsive (QAR)
3) Dull, depressed, obtunded
4) Non-responsive, comatose
5) Altered mentation, dysphoric
What is meant by altered mentation?
Animal may look alert but not truly there
What is meant by an animal is dysphoric?
Animal that's post seizure is often dysphoric: moving, vocalizing but if say their name or snap fingers don't react to you as would be appropriate
What are 8 things should you examine on the head of a small animal?
1) Facial symmetry
2) Muscles of mastication
3) Submandibular lymph nodes
4) Salivary glands
5) Capillary refill time
6) MM color
7) Teeth condition
8) Gingiva
What is the normal capillary refill time of a small animal?
< or equal to 1.5 s
What 3 things can cause a prolonged capillary refill time?
Poor peripheral circulation
Shock
Hypovolemia
What 2 breeds have a different normal color to their mucous membranes?
1) chow chows
2) Dark-haired breeds
What are 5 possible appearances to the mucous membranes?
1) Normal is pink to red
2) Icterus
3) Cyanosis
4) Pale
5) Muddy
What should you be looking for during an oral exam?
-Masses
-string under tongue
-inflammatory lesions
-gingival hyperplasia, epulis
-missing teeth?
What 3 structures should you look AT during an oral exam of a small animal?
1) Tonsils
2) Glossopalatine arches
3) Base of tongue
What 4 things should you examine in the neck during a small animal physical exam?
1) Prescapular lymph nodes
2) Thyroid
3) Larynx and trachea
4) Cough on palpation
What 2 things should you listen for on thoracic auscultation?
1) Cardiac sounds
2) respiratory sounds
-increase? decrease?
Once you detect a murmur in a small animal, what are the 4 things you need to determine about the murmur?
1) Systolic, diastolic, continuous
2) Point of maximal intensity
-heart base, apex, sternal
3) Palpate pulse while listening
-pulse deficit?
4) Are sounds increased? Muffled?
Should you be able to hear a cat breathe?
No, cats normally have quiet respiratory sounds
What are the 2 types of sounds that can be heard on respiratory auscultation? Where does each sound come from?
Crackles (alveolar)
Wheezes (bronchial)
-musical
What are the 2 things you should define upon thoracic auscultation?
1) Define time in respiratory cycle
-Inspiratory vs expiratory
2) Define point of peak intensity
-larynx? trachea? Referred?
What should you note when a thoracic auscultation is muffled?
Dorsal or ventral
What do you feel on abdominal palpation of a dog from cranial to caudal? (6)
1) Caudal border of liver
2) Stomach (maybe)
3) spleen
4) Caudal pole of left kidney (maybe)
5) Large and small intestinal loops
6) bladder
What do you feel on abdominal palpation of a cat from cranial to caudal? (6)
1) Caudal border of liver
2) Stomach (maybe)
3) Spleen (maybe)
4) Both kidneys- right cranial to left, mobile
5) Large and small intestinal loops
6) bladder
What 4 things are you feeling for upon abdominal palpation?
1) Masses?
2) Distention?
3) Fluid?
4) Painful?
-where?
Where are the anal glands located?
In the perineum- 4 & 8 o'clock
What 4 things should you examine in the perineum of small animals?
1) anal glands
2) Anal tone
3) Circumanal lesions?
-hepatoid adenoma
-Anal furunculosis
4) Rectal exam
What are the 3 things you are checking on a rectal exam of a male dog?
Anal tone
Prostate symmetry
Sublumbar lymph nodes
The popliteal lymph nodes are normally located deep in the ______ muscle.
Gracillis
Digital thermometers take anywhere from 15 s to > 1 minute to equilibrate, so what can you do while taking the temperature?
Convenient time to feel peripheral pulse quality
What are 4 ways to categorize peripheral pulse quality?
1) Normal
2) Weak (hypovolemia)
3) "thready" (hypovolemia)
-can't feel much pressure change occurring
4) Bounding
-Pulse pressure difference is high
What can cause a bounding pulse?
PDA or peripheral vasodilation from shock because diastolic pressure can drop (not systolic increasing)
How direction is the ear canal?
Canal goes craniomedial then medial
What should you look for during an otic exam?
Look for excess cerumen, purulent exudate, foreign bodies, masses, inflammatory polyps
-attempt to visualize tympanum
At what point during a physical exam should you perform the ocular exam?
At end of exam so animal trusts you
What should you do for a full ocular exam?
Dilate pupils
Direct VS indirect
Opthalmoscope
How can purring affect the physical exam of a cat?
Can block auscultation of heart and lungs
How can you stop a cat from purring?
Running water, strong scent, tap nose, finger over nostrils
-sometimes nothing works
What kidneys are palpable in cats?
Both kidneys
Where are heart murmurs best heard in cats?
Over the sternum
-heart murmus are often dynamic
What are the 4 essential differences b/w a physical exam on cats and dogs?
1) Cats can purr
2) Can usually palpate both kidneys
3) Heart murmurs in cats are usually heard best over sternum
4) Heart murmurs are often dynamic in cats