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28 Cards in this Set

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Treatment of Carcinoid tumors
A. General: high niacin and high protein diet; avoid stress, alcohol and sympathomimetics

B. Etiological:
1. Surgical: debulking, Ligation, Embolisation
2. Chemotherapy: Streptozotocin, 5-FU, MTX, CPM, IFN

C. Symptomatic:
1. Flushing: Sandostatin, H1 and H2 blockers, IFN, Phenoxybenzamine
2. Asthma: Methylxanthines, not beta2 agonists
3. Diarrhea: Cholestyramine, Loperamide, Antispasmodics, Sandostatin
Gastroenteritis viruses
1. in young children (high fever and pronounced vomiting and diarrhea):
- Astroviruses
- Rotaviruses
- Adenovirus

2. Older children and adults (slight fever and mild or absent diarrhea):
- Norwalk agent
Caliciviruses
- Picornaviruse
- Echoviruses
- Coronaviurses
Systemic Diseases affecting the GIT:
1. Systemic vasculitis
2. Seronegative spondyloarthropathies
3. SLE
4. Scleroderma
5. Reactive arthritis
Clinical picture of Celiac disease
malabsorption
general malaise
stomatitis and mouth ulcers
complications of celiac disease
Malnutrition: peripheral edema

Electrolyte disturbance: tetany

Neurologic: weakness, paraesthesia, peripheral neuropathy

Malignancy: Carcinoma of the GIT and extra-GIT, lymphoma

Osteomalacia
associations of celiac disease
chronic liver disease
autoimmune disease
fibrosing allergic alveolitis
atopy
Agranulocytosis: Drugs
CVS: captopril, quinidine, aprindine

Anti-inflammatory: gold, indomethacin, NSAIDs

Thionamides

Antibacterial agents: CPM, cotrimoxazole, sulfonamides

NS: phenothiazines, tricyclics, carbamazepine

Cytotoxics

Hypoglycemic agents: tolbutamide
Aplastic anemia: drugs
Carbamazepine
phenytoin
mephenytoin
gold
zidovudine
mepacrine
sulfonamides
chloramphenicol
cytotoxics
celiac disease: treatment
1. GIT end of spectrum: subtotal villous atrophy
gluten free diet (few are responsive)

2. Skin end of spectrum: dermatitis herpetiformis
dapson
gluten free diet
Aplastic anemia: drugs
Carbamazepine
phenytoin
mephenytoin
gold
zidovudine
mepacrine
sulfonamides
chloramphenicol
cytotoxics
Aplastic anemia: drugs
Carbamazepine
phenytoin
mephenytoin
gold
zidovudine
mepacrine
sulfonamides
chloramphenicol
cytotoxics
what is Menetrier's disease?
Hypertrophic gastritis
A protein losing enteropathy resulting in hypoalbuminemia

males>females
~40 years of age
rare
unknown etiology

Hypertrophied:
- mucosal folds
- mucous glands
- muscularis mucosa

Increased mucous secretion and decreased acid secretion
Hyperuricemia: etiology
• Gout
• Hematologic diseases
• RF
• Drugs
• HT
• Obesity
• Psoraisis
• DKA
• LA
• Lead poisoning
• Paget's disease
• Sarcoidosis
• Down's syndrome
Hyperuricemia: hematologic causes
Myeloproliferative disorders
Hemoglobinopathies
Hemolytic anemia
Lymphoma
Hypouricemia: etiology
Idiopathic
Liver disease
Malignancy
Drugs
DM
SIADH
Post-operative
Heavy metal poisoning
Metabolic:
Fanconi's syndrome
Wilson's disease
Cystinosis
Hereditary fructose intolerance
Galactosemia
GSD-I
AIP
Pernicious anemia
Diphtheria: complications
Neurologic: acute paralysis

CVS: CHF, Heart block

Laryngeal: stridor, total airway obstruction
Hyperproteinemai due to polyclonal gammopathy: etiology
Collagen disease: SLE, RA, Scleroderma
Chronic infections
Chronic liver diseases
Sarcoidosis
Lymphoma
Acute leukemia
DM
Idiopathic
Monoclonal gammopathies
Classic
Bence-Jones gammopathy
IgG, A, M, E, D gammopathy
Idiopathic
Pulmonary infilterates: types
1. ALVEOLAR:
fluffy
poorly defined borders
affects segments or entire lobes
usually acute but may be chronic
et:
sarcoidosis
DIP
Cancer

2. INTERSTITIAL:
linear to nodular
often chronic
et:
granulomatous diseases
collagen diseases
Hamman-Rich syndrome
eosinophilic granuloma
fibrosis

3. MIXED
Amiodarone: CIs
cardiomyopathy
shock
severe hypotension
thyroid disease
heart failure
respiratory failure
pregnancy or lactation
sinus disease or severe bradycardia
Chronic hepatitis: etiology
genetic
metabolic diseaes
viral
autoimmune
NASH
drugs
toxins
Pheochromocytoma: factors precipitating attacks
Postural change
beta agonists
emotional trauma
micturation
palpation of the tumour
anaesthesia
Nephritic syndrome with low complement
Mempranoproliferative GN I & II
Subacute bacterial endocarditis
SLE
Visceral abscess
Shunt nephritis
Acute post-infective GN
Cryoglobulinemia
Nephritic syndrome with normal complement
Idiopathic RPGN
Idiopathic anti-GBM disease
Vasculitis:
PAN
Wegener's granulomatosis
Henoch-Schoenlein purpura
Goodpasture's syndrome
IgA nephropathy
Plasma cell dyscrasias: associations
1. MALIGNANT:
Multiple myeloma
primay systemic amyloidosis
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
heavy chain disease

2. BENIGN:
healthy
lymphomas and non-lymphomatous malignancies
chronic infections
liver disease
hyperthyroidism
pernicious anemia
myasthenia gravis
beta cell apoptosis: etiology
hyperglycemia
dyslipidemia
cytokines
hormones: leptin
immunologic injury
drugs
TNF-alpha inhibitors
TNF-a receptor antagonists:
TNF-a speicific monoclonal antibodies: infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, gulimumab
TNF-a receptor/Fc fusion proteins: etanercept
Others:
xanthine derivatives as pentoxifylline
Bupropion
5-HT2A agonist hallucinogens including (R)-DOI, TCB-2, LSD and LA-SS-Az
Cetuximab
EGFR specific monoclonal antibody
SCC