Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define HTN
reading of 140/90 on 3 separate occasions
Define prehypertension
Define Stage 1 HTN
Treatment of choice for Stage 1 HTN?
Define Stage 2 HTN
Treatment for stage 2 HTN?
thiazide plus at least one other agent
Treatment for pregnant patients with HTN?
hydralazine, labetalol, or alpha-methyldopa
Treatment for hypertensive emergencies or urgencies?
nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, or beta-blocker (e.g. labetalol)
What does nitroprusside dilate?
arteries and veins
What does nitroglycerin dilate?
veins only
hydralazine, alpha antagonists, Ca2+ blockers all act on what?
dilate arteries
what is the most common cause of secondary HTN in a young women?
How do you diagnose renovascular HTN?
renal bruit; CT or MR angiogram
(can also use US or nuclear medicine)
How do you treat renovascular HTN?
Young man with HTN?
excessive alcohol intake or "exotics" - pheo, Cushing's, Conn's, PKD
Test to order for suspected pheochromocytoma?
urinary catecholamines (vanillylmandelic acid, metanephrine)
Sx of pheo?
intermittent severe HTN, dizziness, diaphoresis
Flank mass, family hx, elevated BUN/Cr
Test to order for suspected Cushing's?
Dexamethasone suppression or 24 hour urine cortisol
Lab findings in Conn's syndrome?
high aldosterone, low renin
Diagnosis of diabetes made by what lab values?
fasting plasma glucose >126 or
random glucose of 200
(if asymptomatic, test should be repeated)
Threshold for diagnosing diabetes with OGTT?
if 200 mg/dL reached within 2 hours of 75g glucose
Goal of diabetes treatment is to keep postprandial glucose ____
Goal of diabetes treatment is to keep fasting glucose _____
Islet cell pathology in Type I DM?
insulitis (loss of most beta cells)
Islet cell pathology in Type II DM?
normal number, but with amyloid deposits
HLA association with what type of diabetes?
Type I
Level of C peptide in people with accidental OD or factitious disorder?
Level of C peptide in someone with an insulinoma?
Treatment of DKA?
fluids, IV regular insulin, K & Phos replacement
Diagnosis of DKA requires what 3 things?
hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis
Diagnosis of nonketotic hyperglcemic hyperosmolar state requires what?
hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity without ketonemia
Treatment of nonketotic hyperglcemic hyperosmolar state?
IV fluids, IV insulin, electrolyte replacement
what class of drugs helps to prevent nephropathy?
How do you treat gastroparesis?
If a patient has a high 7 am glucose, what do you do to dinner NPH?
Patient has a high noon glucose - what do you do?
Increase morning regluar insulin or increase before-breakfast lispro or aspart
What is the Somogyi effect?
body's reaction to hypoglycemia - if too much insulin is given at night, 3 am glucose will be low ->body releases stress hormones -> 7 am glucose is high
what is the dawn phenomenon?
hyperglycemia caused by normal early morning growth hormone secretion - 7am glucose is high wthout 4am hypoglycemia
How much insulin should diabetic patients undergoing surgery get?
1/3- 1/2 of normal insulin dose; monitor closely intra- & post-op with D5W and IV regular insulin
Why should beta-blockers be used cautiously in diabetic patients?
can mask the sx of hypoglycemia (tachycardia, diaphoresis)
Goal for total cholesterol?
Goal for triglycerides?
pancreatitis without alcohol use or gallstones may be a marker for what?
familial hypercholesterolemia
medications that can cause hypercholesterolemia?
OCPs, glucocorticoids, thiazides, beta-blockers
Risk factors for coronary heart disease?
age (men-45, women-55 or with premature menopause and no estrogen tx)
family hx of premature CHD
current smoking (>10/day)
low HDL (<40)
List four things that decrease HDL
smoking, androgens, progesterone, hypertriglyceridemia
3 things that increase HDL
exercise, estrogens, moderate alcohol intake
Raynaud's in a young male smoker?
Beurger's disease
ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, ataxia, & confusion
Wernicke's syndrome (acute)
anterograde amnesia and confabulation
Korsakoff's syndrome (chronic)
pathophysiology of Wernicke's & Korsakoff's?
damage to mamillary bodies and thalamic nuclei due to thiamine deficiency
characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome
MR, microcephaly, microphthalmia, short palpebral fissures, midfacial hypoplasia, & cardiac defects
always give what first to an alcoholic with hypoglycemia?
if you give glucose to an alcoholic before thiamine, what can you precipitate?
Wernicke's encephalopathy