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28 Cards in this Set

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def. of a nucleon
protons and neutrons
primary quantum number
n, shell number, measures size and energy. n=1=k, n=2=L, n=3=M, n=4=N.
secondary quantum number
l, measures shape/energy of an electron's orbital, l=n-1, l=0=s, l=1=p, l=2=d, l=3=f
tertiary quantum number
ml, measures 3-D orientation of the orbital, ml=
quaternary quantum number
ms, designates the electron's intrinsic magnation, +1/2 or -1/2 only
Aufbau principle
electrons occupy lowest energy orbitals first
Hund principle
electrons in the same subshell occupy orbitals singly first
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electron configurations can have identical quantum numbers
Ionic bonding
electron(s) from an atom with a smaller ionization energy transferred to an atom with greater ionization energy.
Covalent bonding
electron pair shared between two atoms.
Bond order
number of shared electron pairs between two atoms.
Bond length
average distance between two nuclei of atoms. Inv. prop to bond order and bond energy
Bond energy
energy required to separate two bonded atoms. Prop. to bond order.
Drawing Lew Dot Structure
1. draw skeletal structure of compound w/ least Electro Neg atom in center.
2. Sum all valence electrons of individ atoms.
3. Drawing single bonds to atoms surrounding central atom.
4. complete the octets of all atoms surrounding central atom.
5. Place extra electrons on central atom. If CA doesnt have enough atoms, try to make double/triple bonds with surrounding atoms that have unbonded EPs.
Formal Charges
Difference between valence electron number of a free atom and the atom in a lewis structure.
Formal Charge= V-0.5N(bonding)-N(nonbonding)
Polar Covalent Bonding
occurs in atoms w/ small differences in EN. The covalent electrons are not shared equally, which forms a dipole in the molecule.
Dipole Moment
vector quantity. Product of charge magnitude and distance between two partial charges.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
Two atoms have equal ENs. Electron pairs shared equally. Happens in diatomic molecs.
Coordinate Covalent Bond
Shared EP comes from long pair of one of the atoms in the molecule. Typically Lewis Acid-Base combos. Can't be distinguished from other covalents.
VSEPR Theory
Predicts molecular geometry using Lewis Dot Structure.
Rule: make lone EPs as far from eachother as possible.
Linear
Bonded to two other atoms. 180 degrees btwn Lone EPs
Trigonal Planar
Bonded to three other atoms. 120 degress btwn Lone EPs
Tetrahedral
Bonded to four other atoms. 109.5 degrees btwn lone EPs.
Trigonal Bipyramidal
Bonded to five other atoms. Angle between EPs: 90,120,180
Octahedral
Bonded to six other atoms. Angle between EPs: 90,180
Dipole-dipole Interactions
1. The rearrangement of polar molecules so that the positive DPs interact w/negative. Present in liquid and solid states.
2. not as strong as ionic bonds
Hydrogen Bonding
Very strong dipole-dipole interaction, this may be intra or intermolecular. Happens with attraction of highly positve hydrogen to highly negative FON.
Dispersion forces
weakest intermolecular force. Caused by random instantaneous polarization of nonpolar colavent molecules.