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27 Cards in this Set

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Rate of Reaction
a measure of the rate at which a reactant is used up or a product is formed.
Rate Unit
Moles per Liter per Second
(mol/LS)
Reversable Reaction
one which can occur in both directions
order of reaction
determined from the exponents of the concentration terms in the rate equation
overall oreder
the sum of the exponents of those concentration terms in the rate equation
varying unit
rate constant
half-life (t 1/2)
the time required for half the concentration of the limiting reactant to be consumed.
integrated rate laws
equations which relate concentrations and time.
FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS
log([Ao]/[A])=kt/2.303
or
ln([Ao]/[A])=kt
Rate for FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS
Rate=k[A]
to find the Rate for Second Order Equations:
Rate=k[A]2
or
Rate=k[A][B]
to find the TIME for Second order reactions:
1/[A] - 1/[Ao] = kt
half-life for second order equations:
T1/2 = 1/k[Ao]
to find the Rate for Zero Order Equations
Rate=k[Ao]
half-life for zero order reactions:
t1/2 = [Ao]/2k
Reaction Quotient
Q= [C][D]
------
[A][B]
Reaction Quotient = Products over Reactants.
At equilibrium, the reaction quotient...
becomes a constant.
Law of Mass Action
when a reversible reaction has attained equillibrium, at a given temperature, the reaction quotient remains constant.
equilibrium constant
0.640
La Chateliev's Principle
if a stress is placed on a system at equalibrium, the equalibrium shifts to offset that stress.
Van't Hoff's Law
when the temperature of a system in equilibrium is raised, the equilibrium is displaced in such a way that the heat is absorbed.
Four ways to shift the equilibrium:
1. change the concentrations of the reactants or products.
2. change the pressure (gas only)
3. change the temperature
4. add a catalyst
with INCREASED PRESSURE, equilibrium shifts to...
the side with the fewest moles of gas.
with DECREASED PRESSURE, equilibrium shifts to...
the side with the most moles of gas.
with ADDED REACTANT, the equilibrium shifts...
to the right.
with ADDED PRODUCT, the equilibrium shifts...
to the left.
a change in temperature changes...
the value of the equilibrium constant.