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28 Cards in this Set

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Arrhenius definition of acid/base
Acids ionize in water to produce H+ ions
bases ionize in water to produce OH-
Bronsted-Lowry definition of acid/base
Acids are proton donors, bases are proton acceptors
Lewis acid/base
lewis acid - e-n pair acceptor
lewis base - e-n pair donor
Strong acids
HI, HBr, HCl, HClO4, HClO3, H2SO4, HNO3
Amphoteric substance
Substance that can act both as acid and base
Kw
[H3O][OH-], Kw= 1.0*10^-14
pH
-log [H+]
pH+pOH
14
pOH
-log [OH]
KaKb
Kw
What is concentration [H+] in sstrong acid?
same as acid, dissociates completely
pH calculation in weak acid
[HA]= 0.2
Ka= [H+][A-]/[HA]= x^2/0.2
pKa
-logKa
pKb
-log Kb
pKa+pKb
14
Neutralization reaction
Reaction of acid and base that produces salt and water
Indicator
weak acid that undergoes a color change when it is converted to conjugate base
Salt
ionic compound that consists of anion and cation
Buffer
Solution that resists changes in pH when small amount of acid/base is added
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
pH= pKa - log [weak acid]/conjugate base
pH= pKa+ log [conjugate base/weak acid]
In designing buffer what should be acid's pKa?
should be as close as possible to pH
Henderson Hasselbalch equation for base
pOH= pKb - log [weak base/conjugate acid]
Acid Base titration
Experimental technique used to determine identity of unknown weak acid/base by determining pKa (pKb)
Titration curve weak acid/strong base
equivalence point at pH>7
starts low, goes up
Titration curve weak base/strong acid
equivalence point at pH <7, starts high, goes down
Titration curve for polyprotic acid
multiple equivalence points
Buffering region
Section of the titration curve where pH changes very gradually
Equivalence point
point during drastic pH change when enough base is added to neutralize all acid