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40 Cards in this Set

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The term for changing a solid or liquid to vapor. (ch 11)
Changing a substance from one state to another.
Ex. Gas to Liq (ch 11)
phase transition
The term for changing a solid to the liquid state.
Ex: Snow to water (ch. 11)
melting or fusion
The term for changing a liquid to the solid state.
Ex: water to ice
The term for changing a solid directly to vapor. ch11
The term for changing a gas to either the liquid or solid state.
Condensation (liquid) Deposition (solid)
The term for the phase transition when a gas changes to the liquid state.
The term for the partial pressure of the vapor over the liquid, measured at equilibrium at a given temperature.
vapor pressure
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure exerted on the liquid. (Atmospheric pressure unless the vessel containing the liquid is closed).
Boiling point
The temperature at which a pure liquid changes to a crystalline solid, or freezes.
Freezing point
Temperature at which a crystalline solid changes to a liquid, or melts.
Melting Point
The heat needed for the melting point of a solid.
Heat of fusion (enthalpy of fusion)
The heat needed for the vaporization of a liquid.
Heat of Vaporization (enthalpy of vaporization)
A graphical representation showing the conditions in which different phases of substances are stable. ch11
Phase Diagram
The point on a phase diagram representing the temp and pressure at which three phases of a substance coexist in equilibrium. ch11
Triple Point
The temperature above which the liquid state of a substance no longer exists regardless of pressure.ch11
Critical temperature
The minimum pressure that must be applied to a gas at the critical temperature to liquefy it.
Critical pressure
The energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount. ch11
Surface Tension
The resistance to flow that is exhibited by all liquids and gases. ch11
The forces of interaction between molecules. ch11
Intermolecular forces
A general term for those intermolecular forces that include dipole and London forces.
Van Der Waals forces
An attractive intermolecular force resulting from the tendency of polar molecules to align themselves such that the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another. ch11
Dipole force
The weak attractive forces between molecules that occur because of the varying positions of the electrons during their motion about nuclei.
London forces
A weak to moderate attractive force that exists between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to either O, N or F atoms.
Hydrogen bonding
A solid that consists of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular forces.
Molecular solid
A solid that consists of positive cores of atoms held together by a surrounding "sea" of electrons.
Metallic Solid
A solid that consists of cations and anions held together by the electrical attraction of opposite charges.
Ionic solid
A solid that consists of atoms held together in large networks or chains by covalent bonds.
Covalent network
Can be shaped by hammering.
A solid composed of one or more crystals; each crystal has a well-defined ordered structure in three dimensions.
Crystalline solid
A solid with a disordered structure; it lacks the well-defined arrangement of basic units (atoms, molecules, or ions) found in a crystal.
Amorphous solid
The geometric arrangement of lattice points of a crystal, in which we choose one lattice point at the same location within each of the basic units of the crystal.
Crystal Lattice
The smalles boxlike unit (each box having faces that are parallelograms) from which you can imagine constructing a crystal by stacking the units in three dimensions.
Unit cell
A cubic unit cell in which there are lattice points only at the corners.
Simple (or primitive)cubic unit cell
A cubic unit cell in which there is a lattice point at the center of the cubic cell in addition to those at the corners.
Body centered cubic unit cell
A cubic unit cell in which there are lattice points at the centers of each face of the unit cell in addition to those at the corners.
Face-centered cubic unit cell
A crystal structure composed of close-packed atoms (or other units) with the stacking ABABABA..
Hexagonal close-packed structure
A crystal structure composed of close-packed atoms (or other units) with the stacking ABCABCA.
Cubic close-packed structure (FCC)
The number of nearest neighbor atoms of an atom.
coordination number
low solute concentration