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105 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The metric unit of volume
liter
For ease of understanding, scientists report measurements using
the metric system
Whether applications of science to everyday life are considered good, bad, right, or wrong comes under the category of
ethics
Counts or measurements are examples of data produced by
quantative research
This is used in an experiment, to test the effect of the independent variable
the control group
In an experiment we form ___________ based on the analysis of data collected in a controlled experiment.
conclusions
This is a possible explanation for a scientific question
hypothesis
This is a piece of technology that scientist use to make small details of an object visible.
microscope
Biologists generally form hypotheses using _______________reasoning.
deductive
How do scientists discover a problem or situation that needs to be explained.
by observing the world around them
The idea that there has been a gradual change in the characteristics of species over time
evolution
Living things adjust to a stimulus by a reaction called a(n)
response
Living things change during their lives through _____.
growth and development
All living things _____ to make more living things.
reproduce
Living things adapt to their surroundings by _____.
maintaining a steady environment (homeostasis)
responding to other organisms
Making adjustments to non-living factors in the environment
The study of standards for what is right and what is wrong is called
ethics
The information gathered from experiments is called _____.
data
A structured procedure for collecting information to test a hypothesis is a(n) _____.
experiment
The application of science to the needs and problems of society is _____.
technology
The part of an experiment in which all conditions are kept the same is the _____.
control
The steps commonly used by scientists in gathering information to test hypotheses and solve problems are called _____.
scientific method
A testable explanation for a question or problem is a(n) _____.
hypothesis
Because it is often difficult to gather numerical data, _____ research is used.
descriptive
_____ research is usually based on numerical measurements.
quantatitive
The living and nonliving factors in an organism's surroundings
environment
Any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to better survive in an environment
adaptation
An organism's tendency to maintain a stable internal environment
homostasis
The series of changes that an organism undergoes during its lifetime
development
The process whereby an organism produces more of its own kind
reproduction
Over time, gradual changes in structures, behaviors, and internal processes of organisms result in diversity of species.
evolution
The first carbon compounds that scientists studied were called _____ compounds because they came from living organisms.
organic
How many electrons can a carbon atom share?
four
What is an example of a chemical reaction?
buning paper
cooking an egg
photosynthesis
respiration
Write the formula for 4 different chemical compound.
This cannot be done in this program. You need to know the formula for water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and glucose
The nucleus of an atom contains _____.
protons and neutrons
Electrons move about the nucleus of an atom in regions called _____.
electron clouds
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
Carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 are _____.
isotopes
The total number of atoms in a molecule of sucrose.
This program cannot show the formula. Write the formula and determine the number of atoms.
Diffusion continues until there is no _____.
concentration gradient
Brownian motion is evidence of _____.
random motion of molecules
Diffusion continues until there is _____.
dynamic equilibrium
An atom of fluorine has nine electrons. Its second energy level has _____.
seven electrons
Glucose and fructose, have the same chemical fromula how are they different?
The arrangement of atoms the is different.
The various enzymes in our bodies are _____.
proteins
Which of the organic compounds can be polymers?
proteins
carbohydrates
nucleic acids
Which organic compounds contain high energy bonds that release large amounts of energy when they are broken?
lipids and carbohydrates
Which type of organisms do not have cell walls?
animals
Folded membranes are an advantage to a cell because _____.
cell processes can be more efficient

the membranes provide a large surface area

the membranes form interconnected compartments
All living things are made up of _____.
cells
What are the main ideas of the cell theory?
all organisms are composed of cells

the cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms

all cells come from preexisting cells
The scientist who first described living cells as seen through a simple microscope was _____.
van Leeuwenhoek
One advantage of electron microscopes over light microscopes is their _____.
higher magnification
If a cell contains a nucleus, it must be a(n) _____.
eukaryotic cell
In a chloroplast, the stacks of membranous sacs are called _____.
grana
Because cells have a watery environment both inside and outside, the polar ends of the phospholipids in the plasma membrane form ____ layers
double
The fluid mosaic model describes a structure with ____.
polar layers on both inside and outside
A cell's contents would be the same as its surrounds, were it not for ____.
selective permeability
A plasma membrane is made up of a(n) _____.
lipid bilayer
Cell structures that contain digestive enzymes
Lysosomes
In a cell, the sites of protein synthesis
Ribosomes
Organelles where molecules are broken down to release energy
mitochondria
The system of foleded membranes that modify proteins and send them to their appropriate destinations.
Golgi apparatus
System of highly folded membranes where cellular chemical reactions occur.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Short, numerous, hairlike projections used for locomotion
Cilia
Long hair-like projections used for locomotion
Flagella
Central membrane bound structure that contains DNA
Nucleus
Chlorophyll containing organelle that captures light
Chloroplast
Membrane bound organelle used for temporary storage of materials
Vacuole
Water moves into a cell placed in a(n) _____ solution.
hypotonic
If cells are placed in a strong sugar solution, water will _____.
pass from the cells to the sugar solution
A cell moves particles from a region of lesser concentration to a region of greater concentration by _____.
active transport
If a cell is placed in salt water, water leaves the cell by _____.
osmosis
List 3 types of passive transport?
facilitated diffusion
diffusion
osmosis
The structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the _____.
plasma membrane
List 3 things that can cause cancer.
environmental influences
UV radiation
viruses
A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of _____.
proteins
A cell's progress from phase to phase during the cell cycle is controlled by ____________.
a series of enzymes
If the sides of a cell double in length, its volume increases by _____ times.
eight
Why a cell's size is limited?
Volume increases faster than surface area.

Homeostasis is disrupted by a cell that is too large.
What are the main parts of the cell cycle?
interphase - normal cellular work

Mitosis - nuclear division
When people move from one country to another, their cancer rates follow the pattern of _____.
The country where they live
What happens in prophase?
tighter coiling of the chromosomes

breaking down of the nuclear envelope

disappearing of the nucleolus
Unlike plant cells, animal cells contain _____.
centrioles
The longest phase of the cell cycle is _____.
interphase
A chromatid is attached to a spindle fiber by the _____.
centromere
Levels of organization from simplest to most complex.
cell
tissue
organ
organ system
oragnism
movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
diffusion
continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration
dynamic equilibrium
release of wastes or cell products from inside to outside a cell
exocytosis
a cell engulfs particles and brings them into the cytoplasm
endocytosis
diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
osmosis
The main energy-trapping molecule in plants is _____.
chlorophyll
Energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll located in the _____.
thylakoid membranes
Chlorophyll traps _____ from sunlight.
energy
A green pigment that traps energy from sunlight is _____.
chlorophyll
Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between _____.
two phosphate groups
Organisms need a way of storing energy because _____.
a cell can't always immediately use all the energy it gets
In order to move molecules in your kidneys, your body needs _____.
energy
Kidneys use energy to move molecules and ions in order to keep the blood chemically balanced. This process is an example of cells using energy to _____.
maintain homeostasis
Write the equation for photosynthesis.
This cannot be done in this program.
Cells store energy when _____.
a third phosphate group is bonded to an ADP molecule to make ATP
The energy in glucose cannot be released by _____.
photosynthesis - Photosynthesis makes glucose it cannot break glucose
Leaves appear green because the green portion of the light that strikes them is _____.
reflected
Some bacteria that are adapted to live without oxygen combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce _____.
methane