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245 Cards in this Set

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The function of this non-membrane bound structure is protein synthesis
Ribosomes
The organelle that packages, sorts and exports
Golgi Apparatus
Organisms that supply their own food source
Producers
The function of this structure is support of the cell
Cytoskeleton
The function of this stucture is movement
Cilia.Flagella
The immediate response to a stimulus
Irritability
The 1st person to see the outline of the cells
Hooke
Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions without being altered
Enzymes
The ability to do work
Energy
Chemical reactions tha change or transform energy in cells
Metabolism
Biochemical pathways that extract energy in the presence of oxygen
cellular respiration
A statement of what always occurs under certain conditions
Law
Contains enzymes used to digest and or degrade engulfed particles
Fermentation
Consumers that feed on dead organisms
Decomposers
Movement of particles into a cell through the use of a vesicle
Endocytosis
The ability of an organism to maintain its internal environment
Homeostasis
the function of this organelle is energy production
Mitochondria
This is the information center of the cell
Nucleus
The weak chemical bond found within the structure of DNA
Hydrogen
Site of lipid production
Smooth ER
What limits the growth of a cell?
surface area/volume ratio
The pH scale is a measure of acidity/alkalinity based on _______ concentration.
Hydrogen
The Kreb cycle occurs within which organelle of the cell?
Mitochondria
What type of molecular transport requires energy and transport proteins?
Active transport
when molecules bind temporarily with a transport proteins in a cell's membrane and move across the membrane from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration is known as...
facilitated diffusion
a structure consisting of tissues organized to interact to carry out specific functions is called an...
Organ
When a solution has equal solute concentration and very little water movement into and out of a cell, the solution is called:
isotonic
Cells require energy for the following reason:
Combat entrophy, carry out day to day function, repair/replace work out organelles, reproduce
Biochemical pathways that extract energy from nutrients int he absence of oxygen include:
Alcohol and Lactic Acid Fermentation
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of nutrient molecules that is available to do work is called:
Potential
During cellular respiration, approximately how many ATPs can one gluclose molecule yield?
30
The ability of a membrane to regulate passage of certain moleculs into and out of a cell is called
selective permeability
Which of the following is part of plant cells but not animal cells
chloroplast
The rough ER contains
ribosomes
The simplest organization of matter that exhibits the properties of life is the
cell
The first step of cellular respiration is:
Glycolysis
4 major organic molecules
lipids, nucleic acid, protein and carbohydrates
4 types of cell membrane proteins
transport, surface, cell adhesion molecules, receptor
4 characteristics of life
maintenance of homeostasis
reproduction
irritability/adaptation
organization
The reason that human muscles ache after a strenuous workout is due to:
lactic acid accumulation
The following are all eukaryotic kingdoms except:
Kingdom Archaea
Secretory vesicles are produced by
Golgi Apparatus
Organisms that use the enrgy in inorganic chemicals to manufacture nutrient molecules are called:
Chemoautotrophs
when cells such as white blood cells of a vertebrate engulf bacteria, the membrane transport mechanism used is
phagocytosis
In an oxidation reaction
a molecule loses one or more electrons
Process of cellular division in which cells are reduced from diploid to haploid
Meiosis
the genotype of an organism that inherits two different alleles
Heterozygous
Condition resulting from excess cell division or deficient apoptosis
cancer
allele that masks the expression of another allele
dominant allele
homologous chromosomes pair up
synapsis
Cells that have only one set of chromosomes
Haploid
Programmed cell death
apoptosis
An organisms appearance based upon the inherited allele combination
phenotype
Genes carried on the same chromosomes
linked genes
The inherited allele combination of an individual
Genotype
the female egg and the male sperm cell
gametes
The nitrogenous bases thymine and cytosine
Pyrimidines
Process of cellular division in which two genetically indentical cells form from one
Mitosis
A sequence of DNA that codes for the production of a specific protein
gene
Test used in predicting hte outcome of a cross between two individuals
Punnett square
Cells that have only one set of chromosomes
Haploid
Programmed cell death
apoptosis
An organisms appearance based upon the inherited allele combination
phenotype
Genes carried on the same chromosomes
linked genes
The inherited allele combination of an individual
Genotype
Cells that only have one set of chromosomes
haploid
programmed cell death
Apoptosis
an organisms appearance based upon the inherited allele combination
phenotype
Genes carried on the same chromosomes
Linked genes
The inherited allele combination of an individual
genotype
the female egg and the male sperm egg
gametes
the nitrogenous bases of thymine and cytosine
pyrimidines
process of cellular division in which two genetically indentical cells form from one
mitosis
A sequence of DNA hta codes for the porduction of a specific protein
gene
Test used in predicting the outocme of a cross between two individuals
punnett square
Cells found within the female ovaries and the male testes that undergo meiosis
germ cells
chromosomes that carry genes for the same traits in the same sequence
homologs
cells that have two sets of chromosoms
diploid
process where homologs exchange chromosomal material
crossing over
The process of meiosis in females
oogenesis
The XX/Xo system of sex determination can be found in:
crickets and roaches
DNA replication occurs during the ______ phase within the ______ stage of the cell cycle
S, interphase
What is NOT a characteristic of a cell in prophase
sister chromatids separate
The primary function of the G1 phase is?
contains restriction checkpoints
An individual with the genotype TT is said to:
Posess the dominanat phenotype and be homozygous
Which of the following reflects the correct order of the phases in interphase
G1, G0, S, G2
What is the purpose of the acrosome of the human sperm
contains enzymes for egg penetration
The laws of heredity were formulted based on oberservations of pea plants
Law of segregation and independent assortment
During embryonic development certain cells are removes from teh arm buds to form fingers through the process known as
apoptosis
The structure of DNA consist of:
phosphate groups, 5 carbon sugars, nitrogenous bases
The main purpose of mitosis is
repairs missing or damaged tissue, allows growth for new cells, reduce the chromosomes from diploid to haploid
In DNA replication, thymine always pairs up with
adenine
How many functional sperm cells are produced during the process of spermatogenesis
Four
Translation of mRNA forms a polypetide chain that determines the specific _____ coded for by the gene
protein
which of RNA encodes the genetic information from DNA
mRNA
the tips of the chromosomes are known as:
telomere
genetic information flows in the cell from
DNA>RNA>protein
A haploid human cell has how many chromosomes?
23
The following processes are "decided" by restriction checkpoints
cell is healthy-divide
cell is unhealthy- die
cell is healthy, but not needed-rest
pyrimidines are attached to purines by what kind of bonds
hydrogen
three consecutive bases form a fenetic word known as a
codon
At the completion of meiosis I, one diploid germ cell has formed into
two genetically different diploid cells
Each codon codes for a particular
amino acid
The following organims are male?
XO and XY
The following is not a characteristic of spermatogenesis
one diploid cell develops into two indentical diploid cells
the belief tha forces forming the earth act in a gradual yet constant way
unoformitarianism
a change in the gene pool of a small population due to chance
Genetic Drift
The disappears of a species on a daily basis
background extinction
Large scaled reduction in population size followed by an increase in size
bottleneck effect
adaptations of unrelated organisms due to similar environmental conditions
Analogous structures
new species form in populations that are separated by geographic barrier
Allopatric speciation
Genetic drift where a few individuals leave a large population to start a new one
Founder's effect
Structures that have no function in one species yet are functional in another
vestigial structures
formation of new forms of an ancestral species as a result of a new habitat
adaptive radiation
he proposed the theory of inheritance of aquired characteristics
Jean Baptist Lamarck
Belief that evolution results from long period of stasis followed by rapid evolution
punctuated equilibrium
One of the geologists who believe in the theory of uniformitarianism
Charles Lyell
He developed a theory of evolution similar to that of Darwin
Alfred Russel Wallace
Similar structure between organism that is the result of a common ancestor
homologous structures
He was the first scientist to propose that fossils represent extinctions
george Cuvier
Environment selects against one phenotypic extreme in favor of the other
directional selection
belief that eukaryotic cells rose from ancient cells that engulfed bacterial cells
endosymbiont theory
breeding of animals by man in order to produce a specific trait in the offspring
artificial selection
Form of natural selectionthat increase an individuals chance of reproducing
sexual selection
environment selects aginst the two extremes in favor of intermediate phenotype
stabilizing selection
Example of this include the human appendix or leg bones in snakes
vestigial structure
genetic drift is most likely to have notiveable effects in
small popoulations where migration occurs regularly
The change in the phenotypic ratio of peppered moths due to pollution during the industrial revolution is an example of
directional selection
the origin of life is believed to have arisen approximately how many years ago
3.5 billion years ago
The earliest eukaryotic fossils are believed to have arisen approximately how many years ago?
1.7 billion years ago
Large scale evolutionary changes that occur over long period of time are
macroevolution
Most modern scientist agree that
Darwin's theory is the most plausible explanation of how evolution occurs
Any evidence of an organism from more than 10,000 years ago is known as
fossils
darwin observed _______ in the gallapagos islands; today they are used as a classic example to illustrate great adaptive radiation
finches
Mammals that carry offspring in a pouch are called
marsupials
A mechanism of reproductive isolation in which mating occurs; however, sperm, cannot penetrate the egg is called:
incompatible gametes
A mechanism of reproductive isolation in which mating is prevented due to structureal difference that prevent the act of copulation or gamete transfer is called
mechanical isolation
A mechanism of reproduction isolation in which mating is prevented due to individuals mating at different seasons or times of day is called
temporal isolation
A change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is the definition of
evolution
When the Hardy-Weinberg equilibruim is achieved (no assumptions violated) evolution
occus in "bursts"
The process of _____ was the machanism Darwin described for weeding out less fit species
natural selection
Two groups within a population begin using separate mating rituals. This would be an example of
behavioral isolation
When natural selection favors certain phenotypes in a population over others, the population is responding to
selection pressure
In the punctuated equilibrium model evolution, period of evolution are:
long, with rapid change
The naturalist who developed the theory of evolution by natural selection was
Charles Darwin
The following is a prezygotic isolating mechanism
A sperm being uable to penetrate an ovum
A diagram based on apparent similarities between species is known as
evolutionary tree
Egg laying mammals
montremes
Mammals that retain their young within the females's body are known as
placental
4 of Darwin's observation
1. More offspring produced than will survive
2. Variation in population
3. Variation incraeses fitness level
4. Individuals compete for resources
Two characteristics possessed by all mammals
hair and mammary glands
All of the individuals of a species in a single location
population
One species living on or on another in such a way that both species benefit
mutualism
The physical location in which an organism lives
Habitat
An inborn behavior that is largely genetically determined
innate
The number of individuals of a species per unit area of habitat
Population density
All populations of organisms living in a defined area
community
deep cold young lakes which are low in productivity and fertility
oligotrophic
a region of varying salinity where a river empties into an ocean
estuary
a regularly repeated journey from one location to another
migration
an animal's tendency to defend a certain location
territoriality
theoretical maximum number of indiiduals an environment can support
carrying capacity
symbiotic relationship where one species benefits and the other always dies
parasitoidism
all of the resources an organism uses for survival growth and reproduction
niche
the male and female of a species are different in appearance
sexual dimorphism
a mating system in which one female mates with multiple male partners
polyandry
learning that occurs quickly during a critical time
imprinting
the number of offspring any individual is likely to produce in a lifetime
fecundity
increasing another individual's fitness at the expense of one's own fitness
altruism
a mating system in which one male mates with myltiple female partners
polygyny
animal uses past observations to perform a new activity without obvious punishment of benefit
latent learning
in the ocean ecosystem photoautotrophs are most likely found:
at the water's surface
the amount of energy transferfrom one trophic level to the next is approximately
10%
in the _______ biomes, precipitation falls as snow and or ice
taiga (boreal forests)
In which biome would you expect to see the highest amount of animal diversity
tropical rain forest
a harmelss species can defend itself by ____ a species that is dangerous
mimiking
what happens if a population dramatically overshoots its carrying capacity in a restricted habitat, such as an island
the weaker members die off and the population level increases
populations with high and very rapid reproductive rates often exhibit ___ growth
boom and bust
the following biome you expect to find grazing animals
tropical savanna
both males and females have multiple partners
polygynandry
Water pollution is an issue of great importance because
all of the earths water must be continually recycled
In which biome would you expect to see alarge abumdance of coniferous or deciduous trees
temperate forest
The concept of the alpha male is an example of ____ which distributes resources with a minimum of aggression
dominance hierarchy
A learned behavior in which an animal applies prior learning to new situations without trail-and-error activities is called
insight learning
The water in Lake waco is nutrient rich and high in productivity, therefore it is considered a ____ lake
eutrophic
The ___ so name because of a type of vegetation that can live in shallow salty water is a transition zone between forest and ocean
mangrove swamp
a population usually has a dispersion pattern due to the need to remain close for defense and access to resources
clumped
within in an organsims niche interaction with other animals in form of predation or competition is an example of:
biotic factors
A population that has roughly equal numbers of people in each ago group is considered to be
stable
an adcantage to living in a eusocial population is:
better defense, improved learning, conserve heat and moisture, enhanced reproductive success
In which biome would you expect to see the lowest amount of biodiversity
tundra
nonliving factors such as oxygen levels temperature Ph level and wind velocity that can limit the typesof species with a community are known as
abiotic factors
an animal behavior in which past observations are used to perform a new activity; occuring without obvious punishment is called
operant conditioning
which driest hottest biome has platns an animals that are adapted to obtain and store water
desert
alveoli
-grapelike outpouchings of the lung
-functional units of lung
-lg surface area
Pharynx
common passageway for both digestive and respiratory tracts
capillaries
important for the interchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other substances between blood and tissue cells.
arteries
-elastic, carry blood away from heart to organs and tissues
veins
inelastic, carry (deoxygenated) blood from body tissues to the heart
bicuspid valve
separates left atrium and left ventricle
tricuspid valve
separates right atrium and right ventricle
Sinoatrial (SA) node
-pacemaker of the heart
-initiates heartbeat
Leukocytes
-white blood cells
-immune cells
-remove foreign chemicals
Erythrocytes
-red blood cells
-consists of hemoglobin
Plasma
-straw colored liquid part of blood
-solvent for dissolving and transport nutrients
-90% water
Characteristics of blood
-oxygen
-carbon dioxide
-nutrients
-regulate body temp
-defend against harmful microorganisms cells and viruses
Chambers of the heart
4 chambers
2 thin walled: atria
2 thick walled: ventricles
Process of ventilation
-controlled by diaphragm and intercoastal muscle
-flatten diaphragm and brings closer to ribs
-thoracic cavity bigger and then lungs inflate
Digestion
chemical or mechanical breakdown of food into particles that individual cells of an animal can absorb
Nutrition
takes in, digests, absorbs, stores and uses food to meet metabolic need
Villi
fingerlike projections that line the length of the small intestines
Oral cavity
mouth, contains tougue and teeth, secretes saliva, initiates digestion
Pharynx
common passage way for both digestive and respiratory tracts
esophogus
involuntary contractions propel food into stomach
small intestines
-most food and digestion take place
large intestine
-reabsorption of water and minerals
-formation and storage of feces
gall bladder
-stores geenish fluid called bile
-aids in fat digestion and absorption
What functions through the use of a vesicle?
phagocytosis, lysosomes, pinocytosis, exocytosis
Energy is given off by breaking the _____ bonds between hte phosphate groups of ATP
covalent
Hemoglobin
glue in red blood cells, makes oxygen stick
Diaphragm and intercoastal muscle
contractions-relaxation
Pancreas
releases enzymes that aid in digestion
Stomach
-stores and mixes food received from esophogus
-starts digestion of proteins
-controls rate at which food moves into small intestine
Liver
-largest organ
-takes nutrients from intestine and releases them into bloodstream
Kidney
-maintain water and iron balance
-remove wastes
Bladder
storage for urine
Ureter
tube that carries urine form the kidneys to urinary bladder
Urethra
single tube that carries the urine out of the body
Macronutrients vs. Micronutrients
Micro: small ions,organic vitamins, inorganic minerals
Macro:proteins, basic to structure and function of cells
Lipids
-highly compact energy storage nutrients
-2x energy than carbs
Proteins
-structure and function of cells
-needed for amino acids
Carbohydrates
-sugar and starch
-come from plant sources
Vitamins
organic substances tha occur in many goods in small amounts
Minerals
come from inorganic sources
Ovulation
Release of egg
Semen
fluid that results from the combination of sperm and glandular secretions
Fallopian Tubes
paired tubes that receive the egg from the ovary and pass it along to the uterus
Seminiferous Tubules
tightly coiled tubules that produce thousands of sperm each second in healthy young men
Scrotum
pouch that holds the testes outside of the body
Uterus
hollow muscular organ, between the urunary bladder and rectum, narrows into a cervix
Estrus Cycle
period of sexual receptivity
Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
-increased diversity
-variation is foundation of evolution
Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction
-cannot pass exact set of genetic material
-gametes are released and not fertilized
--waste of metabolic effort
Male and female gonads (testes and ovaries)
testes: produce sperm
ovaries: produce egg and females hormones
Function of mammary glands
modified sweat glands that produce and secrete milk