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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae?
-large gram negative
-intestinal infections
-oxidase negative
-facultative anaerobe
What is a home remedy for bladder infections? Why?
Cranberry juice because the sugars are the same as in the bladder
What are some defenses of the GI tract against Enterobacteriaceae?
-digestive juices
-normal flora
-mucus
-peristalsis
What role does Coliform have in the GI tract?
It shows if there is any fecal contamination.
Why is the GI tract such a nice place for pathogens to start?
because of the way its designed to get nutrients
What are the causes of diarrhea?
-Toxin mediated
-invasion of bacteria in the intestinal epithelium.
What are the 4 types diarrhea?
-secretory or watery
-dysentry (inflammatory)
-hemmorrhagic colitis
-bloody,
What are some virulence factors of Enterobacteriaceae?
-Adhensins (noninvasive)
-Toxin (heat liable)
-diarrhea
What are the 2 toxins of Enterobacteriaceae?
-LT (AB toxin)(increase cAMP)
-ST(increase cGMP)
What are the mechanics of toxin mediated diarrhea?
It decreases the reabsorption of sodium?
What Ag's are to identify E.Coli?
-H (flagella)
-K (capsule)
-O (LPS)
What's the diagnostic Ag for Salmonella?
O,H,K antigens
What's the diagnostic Ag for Yersinia?
O,H antigens
How many serotypes does Salmonella have?
More than 2000
How does EPEC invade the host cells?
It use intimin to adhere to the cell and then releases proteins from inside the bacteria into the host cell.(type 3 secretion)
Which of the E.coli do not have toxins?
-EIEC
-EPEC
-EAggEC
Which of the E.Coli causes persistent diarrhea in young children?
EAggEC
What is the most frequent E.Coli found in North America?
EHEC
Why is EHEC so easy to get?
It requires a low infection dose. (10)
How many serotypes of EHEC are there?
more than 50
What are the types of Shiga toxins?
-Stx-1
-Stx-2
-Both
What type of toxin is Shiga toxin?
It is an A-B toxin.
-One A and 5 B subunits
-A shuts down protein synthesis.
What is HUS?
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
-Lysis of RBCs and kidney failure
-Stx 2 toxin
What is the fatality rate of HUS?
-3-5%
-serious complications 30%
What is use to test HUS in the lab?
Sorbitol
-EHEC does not ferment sorbitol so on MacConkey plates colonies are white.
What is the treatment for EHEC?
-rehydration
-Antimicrobials
(can shorten course;doesn't reduce HUS)
What are the characteristics of Shigella?
-Gram Negative
-oxidase Negative
-does not ferment lactose
What some virulence factors of Shigella? (Stomach)
-acid resistance
-100-200 organisms to get infection
-induced uptake
What is the source of most of the symptoms of Shigella?
Inflammation response
What is the effect of antimicrobials on Shigella?
None-Shigella has a antimicrobial resistance
Where is the focal infection of Shigella?
the vascular endothelium
What fever is associated with Salmonella?
Typhoid fever
What is the primary source of Salmonella?
Chicken
What is the treatment of Salmonella?
-supportive care
-prevention
-antibiotics only if bacteria is outside of the intestine
How does Typhoid travel to other parts of the body?
Immune cells engulf the bacteria and carry them to other parts of the body
What organ can be removed in order to control the spread of Typhoid.
the gall bladder
Why are antibiotics given for prolonged periods in the treatment of Typhoid?
Because the bacteria move out and then come back to recolonize in the GI tract.
What animal is resposible for the transfer of Yersinia Pestis?
the flea
-responsible for the death of 25% of population of Europe (1346-1350)
What is the nickname of Yersinia Pestis?
Black Death
-responsible for the death of 25% of population of Europe (1346-1350)
What is the incubation period of the Bubonic Plague?
1-6 days
How is the Bubonic Plague transported througout the body?
via the lymphatics (lymphnodes)
What is the mortality rate of the Bubonic Plague?
75% die without treatment
What is the incubation period for Pneumonic Plague?
Mortality rate?
a)2-3 days
b)90%
Why is there a high infectious rate for Pneumonic Plague?
It is spread through the air-one warm lung to another warm lung.
What is the treatment for the Plagues?
-controlling the rat population
-supportive and antibiotics
What regions in the US have reported the plague occuring in animals?
-western US
What is the role of plasminogen?
-It dissolves fibron clots used to trap bacteria at site of infection
-activated only after bacteria eliminated.
When is Plasminogen activated?
once the bacteria is eliminated
What happens with the premature activation of plasminogen(PLA)?
It prevents fibrin clot formation thus removing the barrier to spread.
Explain the Temperature control of Plasminogen (PLA)?
-at 27 degrees it coagulates (clots) in the throat of fleas
-since the flea is thirsty it bites rats of humans and the warm host activates the PLA.