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22 Cards in this Set

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What is Gram Positve, found in clusters,is a catalase,and is common on skin?
Staphylococcaceae
What are some Adherence factors of S.aureus?
-casule
-teichic acid binds to fibronectin (peptidoglycan layer)
-coagulase (clumping factor)
List the the kind and affects of S.aureus toxins
-alpha toxin (lyses memb)
-exfoliation (intercelluar splitting of epidermis and serine prtease)
-toxic shock syn from to much cytokine from T-cells
What are Super Antigens?
antigens that trick T-cells in stimulating too much cytokine which is toxic.
List the 2 antiphagotic factors of S.aureus.
-Capsule
-Protein A
What is Protein A?
a staph protein that binds to the Fc portion of the Ab instead of the antigen binding part
list 2 carriers of Staph infections.
-dry conditions
-hospital acquired infections through contact or fomites
List atleast 5 Staph diseases.
-skin and soft tissue
-bacteremia -Muscleskeletal
-endocarditis -GI
-CNS infections
-pulmonary
-
What are some defenses of the skin?
-physical barrier
-chemical(pH,sebum,salt)
-normal flora (blockade)
List 3 Staph infections
(not diseases)
-folliculitis
-furuncles/carbuncles
-pyogenic infections (pus)
Why is it important to drain some wounds with Staph infections?
because of the lack of blood supply to the area due to swelling prevents antibiotics from getting to the site.
What 2 S.aureus infections are consider medical emergencies and why?
bacteremia and endocarditis because of their spread to the bones, joints, and deep organs. Chunks of tissue can travel to extremities and block capillaries.
What group is most susceptible to SSSS?
Staph Scalded Skin Syndrome
(Ritters Disease and Bullous Impetigo)
-Children
What is Ritters Disease?
-found in kids because of lack of exposure to Staph
-toxin mediated(5% S.aureus
strain)
-Nikolsky's sign
-7-10 days, skin is healed
What is the treatment for Ritters Disease?
Isolation form the environment because of the compromised immune system. Antibiotics will help for secondary infections.
What is Toxic Shock Syndrome?
As S.aureus grows in contaminate wounds or places like tampons, it produces toxins(TSST-1) that make you sick and can be quickly fatal.
What are some signs of Toxic Shock Sysdrome (TSS)
-high fever,vomiting,sore throat, muscle pain, diarrhea
-progression to severe in 48h
(liver,kidney damage)
How do people get food poisoning?
-exotoxins produced by bacteria
-heat food to kill bacteria but not the toxins.
-no fever because your body doesn't recognize the toxin.
How do you treat food poisoning?
let it runs it course because antibiotics can't kill the toxins.
What is the drug of choice for Staph and why?
Vancomycin, because Staph is very good at developing resistances.(last resort)
What is MRSA?
Methicillin - resistant S.aureus bacteria.
-actually resistant to other antibiotics as well.
-patients should be isolated
-treat with Vancomycin
What is the two main distentions betweent S.aureus and S.epidermidis
-S.aureus is coagulase-positve and is involved in pyogenic infections.
-S. epidermidis is coagulase-negative found in foreign body infections