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14 Cards in this Set

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What are the two main aims of premedication in general anesthesia?
1: Prevention of the parasympathomimetic effects of anesthesia (bradycardia, bronchial secretion) AND 2: the reduction of anxiety or pain.
How is induction of anesthesia most commonly achieved?
By the intravenous injection of THIOPENTAL and PROPOFOL.
Why has the use of the inhalation anesthetic HALOTHANE decreased?
Because HALOTHANE is associated with a very low incidence of potentially fatal hepatotoxicity.
What is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic?
NITROUS OXIDE at concentrations up to 70% in oxygen.
During the induction of anesthesia distinct 'stages' occur with some older agents (e.g. ether), what are the 'stages'?
1. Analgesia is produced. 2. Excitement caused by inhibition of inhibitory reticular neurons. 3. Surgical anesthesia develops.
What is thought to be the primary site of action for anesthetics in the brain?
The Reticular activating system (RAS) in the brainstem reticular formation.
What is the mechanism of action of anesthetics?
Not none. 1. May dissolve into the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane and alter ion fluxes. 2. May bind to a hydrophobic area of a protein (e.g. ion channel) and inhibit its normal function.
What is the most effective premedication for relief from anxiety?
Oral benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam).
What is the most effective premedication for reduction of secretions and vagal reflexes?
Muscarinic antagonists, usually hyoscine.
What drugs are used as analgesics during anesthesia?
1. Opioid analgesics (e.g. morphine) are rarely used unless the patient is in great pain. 2. Fentanyl and related drugs are used intravenously to supplement NO anesthesia. 3. NSAIDs (e.g. diclofenac) may provide sufficient postoperative analgesia.
What drug is most commonly used as an antimetic?
The dopamine antagonist droperidol.
What barbiturate is commonly used to induce anesthesia?
Thiopental injected intravenously induces anesthesia in less the 30 seconds because of high lipid solubility.
What non-barbiturates are commonly used to induce anesthesia?
1. Propofol. 2. Ketamine.
What is the purpose of nitrous oxide in general anesthesia?
NO is not potent enough to use as a sole anesthetic agent; commonly used as a non-flammable carrier gas for volatile agents.