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14 Cards in this Set

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Eukaryote
ny of a domain (Eukarya) or a higher taxonomic group (Eukaryota) above the kingdom that includes organisms composed of one or more cells containing visibly evident nuclei and organelles
Prokaryote
any of the typically unicellular microorganisms that lack a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and that are classified as a kingdom (Prokaryotae synonym Monera) or into two domains (Bacteria and Archaea)
Mitosis
a process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves typically a series of steps consisting of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
Meiosis
the cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell and a mitotic division
Escherichia coli
one of many species of bacteria living in the lower intestines of mammals, known as gut flora. When located in the large intestine, it actually assists with waste processing, vitamin K production, and food absorption.
Operon
a group of closely linked genes that produces a single messenger RNA molecule in transcription and that consists of structural genes and regulating elements (as an operator and promoter)
b-galactosidase
an enzyme that splits lactose into glucose and galactose
Galactosidase Permease
enzyme that specifically promotes uptake of galactosides, such as lactose, into the cell and without permease lactose cannot penetrate into the cell
b-galactoside transacetylase
enzyme that transfers an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to b-galactosides.
Hydrolysis
a chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water
Substrate
a substance acted upon (as by an enzyme)
Membrane
a thin layer that separates various cellular structures or organs. It usually includes lipid bilayer reinforced by proteins and other macromolecules
Organelle
a specialized cellular part (as a mitochondrion or ribosome) that is analogous to an organ
Diffusion
Process in which the random movement of molecules causes different types of molecules to mix, moving from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration and eventually becoming evenly distributed.