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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
androgyny
a blending of masculinity and femininity, in which the desirable characteristics associated with both men and women are combined within individuals.
benevolent sexism
positive attitudes that nonetheless serve to belittle women and keep them subservient.
gender stereotype
the beliefs about the characteristics associated with, and the activities appropriate to, men or women.
illusory correlation
the incorrect belief that two events vary together, or the perception that the relationship is strong when little or no actual relationship exists.
implicit attitudes
attitudes that people hold on an unconscious level, which may differ from their explicit, conscious attitudes.
stereotype threat
a phenomenon that occurs in situations in which the presence of negative stereotypes affects the performance of those to whom the stereotype applies.
validation
the process of demonstrating that a psychological test measures what it claims to measure; the procedure that demonstrates the accuracy of a test.
androgen insensitivity syndrome
a disorder in which body cells are unable to respond to androgens, resulting in the feminization of chromosomal males.
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (AKA adrenogenital syndrome)
a disorder that results in masculinization, producing premature puberty in boys
and masculinization of the external genitalia in girls.
endocrine glands
lands that secrete hormones into the circulatory system.
estradiol
the most common of the estrogen hormones.
estrogens
a class of hormones that includes estradiol and other steroid hormones. Women typically produce a greater proportion of estrogens than androgens.
external genitalia
the reproductive structures that can be seen without internal examination: clitoris, labia, and vaginal opening in women and penis and scrotum in men.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
the gonadotropic hormone that stimulates development of gonads during puberty and development of ova during the years of women's fertility.
gonads
reproductive organs.
hermaphroditism
a disorder in which individuals have characteristics of both sexes.
hormones
chemical substances released from endocrine glands that circulate throughout the body and affect target organs that have receptors sensitive to the specific hormones.
internal genitalia
the internal reproductive organs, consisting of the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vagina in women; and testes, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and prostate gland in men.
intersexuality
a more modern term for hermaphroditism.
Klinefelter syndrome
the disorder that occurs when a chromosomal male has an extra X chromosome, resulting in the XXY pattern of chromosome pair 23. These individuals have the appearance of males, including external genitalia, but they may also develop breasts and a feminized body shape. Their testes are not capable of producing sperm, so they are sterile.
lateralization
the concept that the two cerebral hemispheres are not functionally equal but rather that each hemisphere has different purposes. luteinizing hormone (LH) the gonadotropic hormone that prompts sexual development during puberty and also causes a maturing ovum to be released.
menarche
the first menstruation.
Müllerian system
a system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the female internal reproductive system—ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vagina.
pituitary gland
an endocrine gland within the brain that produces tropic hormones that stimulate other glands to produce yet other hormones.
progestins
a group of steroid hormones that prepares the female body for pregnancy; their function for the male body is unknown.
releasing hormones
hormones produced by the hypothalamus that act on the pituitary to release tropic hormones.
Sexual dimorphism
the existence of two sexes— male and female— including differences in genetics, gonads, hormones, internal genitalia, and external genitalia.
sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN)
a brain structure in the hypothalamus, near the optic chiasm, that is larger in male rats than in female rats and larger in men than in women.
spinal nucleus of the bulbocavemosus
a collection of neurons in the lower spinal cord that control muscles at the base of the penis.
steroid hormones
hormones related to sexual dimorphism and sexual reproduction that are derived from cholesterol and consist of a structure that includes four carbon rings.
testosterone
the most common of the androgen hormones.
tropic hormones
hormones produced by the pituitary gland that influence the release of other hormones by other glands, such as the gonads.
Turner syndrome
the disorder that occurs when an individual has only one chromosome of pair 23, one X chromosome. These individuals appear to be female (have the external genitalia of females) but do not have fully developed internal genitalia. They do not produce estrogens, do not undergo puberty, and are not fertile.
Wolffian system
a system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the male internal reproductive system—testes, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens.
X chromosomes
one of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23. Two X chromosomes make a genetic female, whereas genetic males have only one X chromosome in pair 23.
Y chromosome
one of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23. One X and one Y chromosome make a genetic male, whereas genetic females have two X chromosomes in pair 23.