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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the causes of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
1. Deprivation
2. Genetic Disorders
3. Immune Dysfunction
4. Infectous Diseases
5. Metabolic Disorders
6. Nutrition
7. Trauma
8. Toxic and Environmental Factors
What is Hospitalism?
-Most severe form of deprivation
-Results in slowed physical development, disruption of perceptual motor skils, language, wasting or death
What is Anaclitic Depression?
Sublethal behavioral retardation from depression from infants suffering loss of their mothers
What is RAD? and what are its characteristics?
Reactive Attachment Disorder -Children who act in disturbed and inappropriate ways socially -inhibited or disinhibited
Which category of Neurodevelopmental disorders does blindness Dfall under and what is its risks?
Risks are poor developmental outcomes, can lead to autistic like behaviours
Down Syndrome.
One of the Genetic disorders, also known as Trisomy 21. Results from extra chromosome 21
Characteristics-short staure, epicanthal folds, abnormal finger and palm prints, heart defects, poor mm tone and mental retardation
Fragile X syndrome is also called what? and what does it result from? What are its characteristics?
Martin Bell syndrome.
Results from expansion of single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on x chromosome
Characteristics: elongated face, protruding ears, macroorchidism, flat feet, poor muscle tone, mental retardation. It is most common cause of autism
Rett Syndrome is the 3rd Genetic disorder - what is it caused by, characteristics?
Caused by x (sex) chromosome mutation, exclusive to girls.
Known by small hands/feet, microcephaly, repetitive hand movements, GI disorders and seizures
Williams Syndrome - what is it, caused by and characteristics?
It is a genetic disorder and is caused by deletion of 26 genes from chromosome 7.
Characterized by ELFIN facial appearnnce, cheerful demeanor, ease with strangers, developmental delay, hypercalcemia, and cardiovascular problems
What are the 2 Immune Dysfunction disorders? what is their basic classification defn?
2. Sydenham's chorea
They are immune reactions against infections during pregnancy - either child or mother can produce autoimmue reactions against brain tissue, causing neurodevelopmental disorders
Anterior Pituitary Gland - Adenohypophysis secretes hormones including? (7)
Pituitary Hypofunction
What is Pituitary Dwarfism?
It is a GH deficiency, and it treated by GH replacement therapy. Growth failure in infants leads to a lean body, poor bone density in adults
What is Sheehans Syndrome?
Also called Acute Post Partum Pituitary Insufficiency
Sheehan syndrome aka Simmonds' syndrome or Acute Postpartun=m Insufficiency - hypopituitarism caused by necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth. Pituitary damage unrelated to pregnancy is called Simmonds' disease.
What are symptoms of Acute Post Partum Pituitary Insufficiency?
AGALCTORRHEA, AMENORRHEA, fatigue, intolerance to cold, constipation, weight gain, hair loss, BRADYCARDIA and hypotension
Defn Agalactorrrhea
Is the absence/faulty secretion of breast milk following child birth
Defn Bradycardia
Slow heart rate - beating too slow
Pituitary Hyperfunction p.3
What is Somatotropic Adenoma?
It is a benign tumor that grows slowly increasing ICP, and producing GH causing acromegaly [too much GH]. Typically diagnosed in 50s. If occurs in childhood, leads to pituitary gigantism
What is the other name for Chronic Panhypopituitarism and what is it?
It is called SIMMONDS DISEASE and is the decreased secretion of most pituitary hormones with various s/s due to tumors/trauma
Pituitary Hyperfunction - what is Somatotrophic Adenoma?
It is a benign tumor that grows slowly increasing ICP, producing GH = acromegaly. Typically diagnosed in 50s, if occuring in childhood leads to pituitary gigantism
Thyroid Gland - What two hormones does it produce?
Triiodothyroine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) synthesized from IODINE and tyrosine, as well as calcium
Hypothyrodism - What is the other name for Thyroiditis?

What is it?
Hashimotos Disease - Inflammation of the thyroid: causing fatigue, WEIGHT GAIN, depression, dry skin and constipation
Hypothyroidism - Iodine Deficiency - What is it?
Iodine Deficiency is low amount of thyroxine in the blood due to lack of dietary iodine to make it. Increases producion of TSH - goiter
Hyperthyroidism - What is Graves Disease?
Diffuse toxic goiter common in women, caused by autoantibodies to TSH recepter that stimulate thyroid hormone synthesis/secretion/growth - no cure but HRT, autoimmune condition appears suddenly in late life. Symptoms: exopthalmus, goiter, sweating, heat intolerance, weight loss
EXOPTHALMUS-abnormal bulging of the eyeball
Thyroid Tumors - Benign
T or F? Is an Adenoma
Adrenal Glands - Sits on top of the kidney, responsible for releasing hormones in conjunction with stress. Cortex and Medulla hormones - what are they?
Acute/Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency is also known as what?
ADDISON's Disease
- Deficient in production of cortisol and aldosterone=craving salt due to urinary loss of Na
- progresses to severe abdominal pains, diarrhea, vomiting, depression
- typically called WATERHOUSE-FRIDERICHSEN SYNDROME, sudden withdrawal of long term corticosteroid therapy
What is the Tx fro Acute Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency?
Drug Therapy - HYDROCORTISONE, prednisone
Adrenal Hyperfunction - Hyperaldosteronism (Conns Syndrome)
What is it?
Idiopathic overproduction of aldosterone by adrenal cortex, causing hypernatremia, hypokalemia = secondary hypertension. Typically CAUSED BY ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA OR CARCINOMA