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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are 2 commonly used presumptive IDs when identifying a body?
1. environment
2. visual recognition
What are some examples of positive IDs? (5)
1. Finger prints
2. DNA
3. Dental records
4. Radiographic comparisons
5. physical traits and tattoos
What are 3 signs of death?
1. rigor mortis - stiffening
2. livor mortis - pooling
3. algor mortis - cooling
What is lividity?
blood pooling/settling
What is the conceptual difference b/t a fact witness and an expert witness.
Fact witness - can only say factual information (no opinion)

Expert witness - can give opinions
What is the most common cause of death in the US?
CV disease
What 2 things are seen in a contact gunshot wound?
1. soot inside wound
2. muzzle imprint/abrasion likely
what 2 things can be seen in a gun shot wound that is fired from an intermediate distance (within 2 feet)?
1. soot within several inches
2. stippling within 2 feet
How can you differentiate the entrance and exit gunshot wounds in skull?
Look for beveling (cratering)

Entrance - bigger hole on the inner surface of the skull

Exit - bigger hole on the outer surface on the skull.
Marginal abrasion is seen on the entrance or the exit of a gunshot wound?
entrance.
Incised wounds are lethal in which areas of the body?
neck or extremities
What is avulsion in the context of gunshot wounds?
forcible separation of a tissue from the rest of the tissue (esp. bone/skull)
What is implied by blood coming out of the inner in a blunt trauma victim?
basal skull fracture
What is a contracoup brain contusion?

Coup brain contusion?
Contrecoup brain contusion - contusions on the surface of gyri and damaged pia on the opposite side of impact.

Coup brain contusion - damage on the site of impact.
Large amount of petechiae in the eyes is associated with what type of asphyxia?
strangulation.
Which bone is frequently fractured in manual strangulation?
hyoid bone b/t the body and cornu.
What does calcified hyoid bone at the body/cornu jxn indicate?
Hx of repeated strangulation.
What is Duret hemorrhage? What is the pathogenesis?
Hemorrhage in the pons

Secondary to increased intracranial pressure due to hematoma, edema following trauma, abscess, or tumor.
Perforation of nasal septum is closely associated with what?

Pathogenesis?
Chronic cocaine use.

Constriction of vessels in the nasal septum --> ischemia --> coagulative necrosis
What are 4 ways of increasing CV risks due to cocaine?
1. cocaine binds to endothelium --> intimal tearing

2. accelerates thrombosis

3. plaque disruption

4. vasospasm
What do contraction bands in the myofibers indicate?

Causes?
They indicate spasm of myofibers in response to massive catecholamine release.

Can be caused by stress, COCAINE TOXICITY, heat exhaustion, and after massive injury,
What are track marks? where are they seen?
Needle puncture marks on the vein.
What do you look for in shaken baby syndrome?
1. Subdural hematoma
2. hemosiderin in the dura
3. rib fractures
What type of retinal hemorrhage do you look for in an infant suffering from the shaken baby syndrome?

Do you see the same pattern in an infant that died from the a motor vehicle accident?
Many distinct hemorrahnges, tiny and petechial.

No, an infant died due to MVA would only have a small rare hemorrhage.
What is Benzoylecgonine? Where do you find it?
a common product of cocaine.

In the toxicology report.
What kind of crystals are embedded in the kidney when a person dies from antifreeze poisoning?
ethylglycol crystals and products of ethylglycol (oxalic acid)
Define cause of death.
The disease or incident that led to demise.
A 31-yr old man complained of abdominal pain, vomited 5 times, and was short of breath. He dies shortly after.

Autopsy reveals contraction bands in the myofibers and sclerosis with little atheroma in the coronary arteries.

Cause of death? Manner of death
cause - Heart failure secondary to MI

Manner - natural cause
What are 4 manners of death?
1. natural cause
2. accident
3. suicide
4. homicide
What are 2 key findings of electrical burn?
1. epidermal blistering/sloughing
2. streaming of nuclei
What type of inflammation can result from foreign crystals in the lung?

What is the common source of foreign crystals?
Granulomatous inflammation

They are junks in the IV drugs.
This is a picture of heart and coronary artery.

What is a probable cause of death?
MI due to thrombosis in the coronary artery
What is the contact range in this GSW?
Intermediate.

Tattooing and soot
This person died from kidney failure. What type of poisoning is this?
Antifreeze poisoning.

Look for the ethylene glycol crystals
Complaining of chest pains at home.

He died in ED. Cause and manner?
Cause - MI due to coronary atherosclerosis

Manner - natural cause
45 YO man drinks bottle of gin everyday for 20 yrs. Dies in bed.

Cause of death? Manner of death?
Cause of death - Cirrhosis of the liver due to chronic alcoholism

Manner - natural