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41 Cards in this Set

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The geometry or shape of a molecule refers to positions of atoms/electron pairs/both?
ONLY positions of atoms
An element which can act as an electron acceptor should have a high or low electron affinity? metal or non-metal?
high electron affinity, non-metal (like S)
Acid vs. Base
Acid: Arrhenius- a substance that ionizes in water to produce protons
Bronsted-Lowry- a substance that donates a proton to some other substance
Lewis- electron pair acceptor

Base: Arrhenius- a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ions
Bronsted-Lowry- a substance that accepts a proton from some suitable donor
Lewis- electron pair donor
First ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from the outer shell of an atom
-low value: when removal of e- yields a complete shell
-high value: when removal of e- disrupts a complete shell
Mass Number= ___ + ____
protons + neutrons in the nucleus
How do you calculate a half life?
original amount/final amount=#
2^ what power= #
power= # half-lifes
#half-lifes * # yrs in one half life= # yrs that pass
Nucleons
Protons & Neutrons
Atomic Number
# Protons in nucleus
Mass Number
# Protons + # Neutrons
* sometimes written after name of element
Isotopes
Differ in numbers of neutrons
Same atomic #
A greater value of n (shell number) denotes what?
A greater electron energy and average distance from the nucleus
First, second, third, and fourth quantum #'s?
First/shell quantum # (n): size and energy of orbital
Second/subshell quantum # (l): shape (& energy) of orbital
Third/orbital quantum # (mL): orientation of orbital
Fourth/spin quantum # (mS): electron's intrinsic magnetism, spin of electron in orbital
Hund's Rule
electrons in the same subshell occupy available orbitals singly, before pairing up
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum #'s
Can use periodic table to assign electron configurations, BUT beware of the d block whose n is in the d block because...
the element has its outermost electrons in the subshell 1 less from the period number
Atoms that are at a more stable, lower-energy state when an inner orbital electron is transfered to the outermost orbital:
Copper, silver, gold, wants half-filled d
Chromium, molybdenum wants filled d
To find electron configuration of ions:
For cations: losing 1 or more electrons--move to the left the # of squares equal to the # electrons lost to find the atom w/same config as the ion
For anions: gained electrons, move to the right by # squares equal to number of electrons added in order to find the atom with the same configuration as the ion
For transition metals: valence electrons from which subshell get ionized first?
s, and only once these are gone do the d ones get ionized as well
Ionization
Process in which an ion is created from a neutral atom or molecule by adding or removing one or more electrons
DIAMAGNETIC
All electrons are spin-paired
-diagmagnetic
-repelled from a magnetic field
PARAMAGNETIC
Not all electrons spin-paired
-attracted into a magnetic field
An electron is in its excited state when...
it absorbs energy (em radiation or photon) equal to the difference in energy between level its in and current level
What is always the amount of energy absorbed or emitted by an electron in moving between energy levels?
= to the difference in the energy levels involved in the transition
Fluorescence
A process in which a compound emits light at one wavelength while being excited by radiation with a shorter wavelength
-observed when photons corresponding to lower-energy transitions are in the visible spectrum
What is an excited atom? Is it an ion?
an excited atom is NOT an ion, because electrons are not lost or gained
-in an excited atom, electrons jump to higher energy levels within the atom
Emission Spectrum
-created by passing light emitted by excited atoms through a prism
-an energetic "fingerprint" of the element, because it consists of a unique sequence of BRIGHT lines that correspond to specific energies @ which atom can EMIT photons
Absorption Spectrum
-an energetic fingerprint of the element, gives a unique sequence of DARK lines that correspond to the specific frequencies and wavelengths at which atoms of the element can ABSORB photons
What is a strong nuclear force?
-stronger than electrical force between charged particles, because the strong nuclear force must overcome the electrical repulsion between the protons
Characteristics of STABLE nuclei
-# neutrons is usually equal to or slightly greater than # protons
-as atomic # increases, ratio of # of neutrons to protons increases
Radioactivity
-characteristic of unstable nuclei, which undergo radioactive decay to make themselves more stable (altering # & ratio of protons & neutrons or just lowering their energy)
The nucleus that undergoes decay is called the ____
The resulting, more stable nucleus is known as the ________
The nucleus that undergoes decay is called the _parent___
The resulting, more stable nucleus is known as the ___daughter_____
3 Types of Radioactive Decay
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
What is alpha decay?
-occurs when a large nucleus wants to become more stable by reducing # of protons & neutrons
alpha= 2 protons and 2 neutrons (same as a Helium nucleus)
-reduces the parent's atomic # by 2 and mass # by 4
MAIN POINT: decreases the number of neutrons and protons in large nucleus, subtracts 4 from mass # and 2 from atomic #
What is beta decay?
3 types: B- (beta), B+, & Electron Capture
-the transmutation of a neutron into a proton or vice versa through the action of the WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE
E photon equation
E photon= hf= (hc)/ lambda
When the MCAT says "beta decay" without any further qualification, it means...
B- decay
What is B- decay?
When an unstable nucleus contains too MANY neutrons, it may convert a neutron into a proton & an electron (a B- particle) is EJECTED
-mass # is same, atomic # of the daughter nucleus is 1 greater than the radioactive parent nucleus
MAIN POINT: decreases # neutrons, increases # protons, adds 1 to atomic #
What is B+ decay?
-When an unstable nucleus contains too FEW neutrons, it converts a proton into a neutron & a positron, which is ejected
MAIN POINT: increases # neutrons, decreases # protons, subtracts 1 from atomic #
What is a positron?
Emitted in B+ decay, it is the electron's antiparticle
-identical to electron BUT charge is +1
-atomic # of daughter is 1 less than parent, but mass # doesn't change
What is electron capture?
-to increase its # of neutrons, an unstable nucleus captures an electron from the closest electron shell & uses it in the conversion of a proton into a neutron (show electron on right-hand side of equation)
-RESULT: atomic number reduced by 1, and mass # doesn't change (like in B+ decay)
MAIN PT: increases # neutrons, decreases # protons, subtracts 1 from atomic number
What is gamma decay?
An expulsion of energy in the form of gamma photons (photons of em radiation)
-MAIN PT: brings an excited nucleus to a lower energy state, doesn't change identity of nucleus (neither mass nor atomic #)