Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How thick is continental crust
How think is oceanic crust
What is the base of the crust where the mantle and crust meet?
How thick is the lithosphere
Distance to the center of the Earth?
floating balance of lithosphere on the asthenosphere
Composition of asthenosphere?
ultramfic (paridatite)
Two reasons why the Earth is hot?
inital heat of formation and radioactive decay
Geothermal gradient
15-50 deg C / km
Earth's crust composition
O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K
A mineral is
Homogenous, naturally occurring, inorganice, solid, definite chemical composition, ordered internal molecular structure
A solid aggregate of minerals
Physical properties of minerals
color, luster (metalic, non-metalic), streak, hardness, cleavage, magnetic?, effervess, specific gravity, flourecense, crystal form
Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
Basic building block of all silicate minerals
How do minerals form?
1) Crystalize from a melt
2) Precipitate from a super saturate solution
3) Solid state diffusion (metamorphosis)
Bowmen's reaction series
From High T, Mafic, Simple
To Lower T, Complex, Felsic
explosion from a volcano
Cools underground in magma chamber
How do we melt rock?
Decompression melting (happens @ mid ocean ridges)
Partial Melting
enriches the magma in silicia
breakdown of pre-existing rocks
minerals with the same chemical composition but different crystaline structures (eg graphite and diamond)
Conchoidal fracture
Doesn't cleave
What are the silicate mineral groups?
Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, micas, feldspars, quartz
What is the silicate structure of olivine?
single tetrahedron
What is the silicate structure of pyroxene?
Single chains
What is the silicate structure of amphibole?
Double chains
What is the silicate structure of mica?
What is the silicate structure of feldspars?
3d networks
What is the silicate structure of quartz?
3d networks
Volatiles in magma
disolved gasses in the melt
What are the three ways to melt rock and produce magma?
1) Melting due to decrease in pressure
2) Melting due to addition of volatiles
3) Melting due to additional heat
resistance to flow
Fractional Crystalization
mafic minerals solidify at a higher temperature than silicic minerals
What factors affect crystal size of cooling magma?
1) rate of cooling
2) percent of silica
3) disolved gases
Magmas higher in silica are more or less viscous?
More viscous (resistant to flow)
A course grain igneous rock indicates
intrusive (it cooled inside slowly to grow larger crystals)
Fine grained granite is called?
Fine grained diorite is called?
Fine grained basalt is called?
Fine grained peridotite is called?
Foreign rocks inside an igneous rock
Verticle magma flows
The line of magma feeding a volcano
Volcanic neck
The stock exposed after the magma has cooled and weathering has occured
Horizontal magma flows
Large pocket of magma
Very Large pocket of magma
What are the types of volcanoes?
Shield, stratovolcanoes or composite, cinder (pyroclastic) cones, plug domes (rhyolite dome), lava plateaus, calderas
What is the largest type of volcano?
What are two well known stratovolcano (composite volcano)?
Mt. Fuji, Mt. St. Helenes
What is a caldera?
collapsed volcano that might fill with water
What are the sedimentary stages of the rock cycle?
weather, erosion, transportation, deposition (sedimentation), burial, lithification
What are the stages of lithification?
compaction, cementation, recrystalization
Two types of sandstone are?
quartz arenite (think white beach), arkose (feldspar, think desert)
Types of metamorphism?
contact and regional
parent rock that forms a metamorphic rock
vertical layers (gouping of common minerals) in metamorphic rock
Three factors of metamorphism?
Temp, Pressure, fluids
Types of sedimentary rocks
Clastic, biochemical, chemical
Types of clastic sedimentary rocks
conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, silstone, shale, mudstone
Types of biochemical sedimentary rocks
limestone, fossiliferous limestone, chert, coal
Types of chemical sedimentary rocks
halite, chert, travertine
What rocks form slate?
shale or mudstone
Types of metamorphic rocks
slate, schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite
Foliated metamorphic rocks
slate, schist, gneiss
Non-foliated metamorphic rocks
marble, quartzite
Marble comes from?