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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Kartagner Syndrome?
- Autosomal recessive
- immotile flagella
- Bronchiectasis (leads to coughing), sinusitis, situs invertis (organs backwards)
- Infertility (due to lack of flagella and cilia in ovarian tubes)
Origins in gastrulation due to the need for motile cilia for asymmetry
What causes holoprosencephaly?
- Deficits in axial mesoderm signaling during gastrulation
- Defects in midline ventral brain signaling at later stage
Leads to poorly split facial structures and brain
1 in 16,000 live births
When does gastrulation begin?
About day 15
How far anterior does the primitive streak migrate?
About the lumbar region
Names the sections of mesoderm present during gastrulation, starting anteriorly
-Prechordal plate
-Paraxial mesoderm, lateral plate mesoderm
-Somites, intermediate mesoderm
-Presomitic mesoderm
-Primitive streak
What derives from intermediate mesoderm?
Somatic gonads
Adrenal cortex
What derives from lateral plate mesoderm (somatic)?
Limb bones and CT
Ventral dermis
CT of body wall
Why is the prechordal plate important?
Induces division down midline of forebrain; defect or absence leads to holoprosencephaly

Only makes a few small face muscles
What does the notochord make?
Induces brain and spinal cord
Induces ventral cell types in spinal cord (via shh)
Produces intervertebral discs
What is derived from the ectoderm of the gastrula?
Neural ectoderm (neural plate)
Neural crest cells
Surface ectoderm
Surface ectoderm derivatives
Epidermis of skin
Ectodermal placode derivatives (lens of eye, inner ear, placodally derived neurons)
Neural ectoderm derived
CNS (brain and spinal cord)
Neural crest derived
Dermis (head)
Ear bones (middle)

Cardiac outflow tract
Adrenal chromaffin
Skeleton and CT (facial)
Prechordal plate derived?
A few eye muscles (important in brain splitting induction)
Paraxial mesoderm derived (head region)
Eye muscles
Base of skull bones
Head muscles
blood and blood vessels
Notochord derived?
Intervertebral discs
Somite derived?
Most skeletal muscle (in limbs)
Dorsal dermis
Blood and blood vessels
Somatic mesoderm derived?
CT of body wall
CT and bones of limbs
Ventral dermis
Blood and BV
Splanchnic mesoderm derived
Smooth muscle
CT of CV and gut
Cardiac muscle
Blood and BV
Endoderm derived
Epithelial lining of lungs, GI, larynx, trachea, bladder, urethra
What day does the blastocyst form?
Day four
When do blood islands begin to form on the yolk sac?
Week 3
When do the first somites form?
Neural tube begin to close?
Neural crest migration begins?
First branchial arch beings to form?
Week 3
When does the heart first beat?
Week 4
When does the oropharyngeal membrane rupture? (getting rid of blind pouch)
Week 4
When does forelimb and trachial budding begin?
Week 3
Primordial germ cells arrive at gonads from the yolk sac?
Week 6
External genitalia begins to differentiate?
Week 7
When does the anal membrane rupture?
Week 8
When does the fetal period begin?
Week 9