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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
digestive tract
~alimentary canal
~mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine, anus
peristalsis
~rhythmic contraction fo smooth muscle that forces food through digestive tract, bile through bile duct, and urine through the uterer
accessory organs
~aid in digestive process
~not part of digestive tract
~teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
mouth
~entrance
~mechanical (tongue/teeth)
~chemical (saliva)
tongue
~muscular appendage
~aids in chewing, swallowing, and speech
~contain taste buds
esophagus
~transfers food 4m the oropharynx to the stomach
~contains epiglottis and cardiac sphincter
oropharynx
~area btwn soft palate in the mouth and upper portion of the throat
epiglottis
~closes to prev food 4m entering trachea
cardiac sphincter
~closes to prev reflux of gastric contents
stomach
~hollow muscular pouch
~secretes pepsin, mucus, hydrochloric acid
~secretes intrinsic factor necessary 4 absorption of vit B12
small intestin
~duodenum, jejunum, ileum
~lined with villi
villi
~contains capillaries and lymphatics that transport nutrients 4m the small intestine to the body
large intestine
~ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
~absorbs fluid/elec
~synthesizes vit K
~stores fecal material
liver
~largest organ in body
functions of the liver
~produces bile
~metab carbs, fats, proteins
~filters old RBCs
~blood storage
~detox chemicals
~excretes bilirubin
~metab hormones
~prod albumin
gallbladder
~hollow, pear-shaped organ
~stores bile
cystic duct
~when bile is needed, gallbladder contracts and expels bile
~then flows into common bile duct
~then enters duodenum
pancreas
~secretes 3 digestive enzymes: amylase, lipase, trypsin in2 duodenum
~secretes insulin, glucagon, somatostatin 4m islets of Langerhans in2 blood
~secretes large amts of sodium bicarbonate
barium swallow test
~fluoroscopic exam of pharynx/esophagus
~PRE:NPO 8hours
~POST:fluids
~laxatives
upper GI series
~xray to exam esophagus, stomach, duodenum after pt swallows barium
~PRE:NPO 8hours
~IV fluids, enemas
~POST:light-colored stool
~cathartics, fluids, enemas
lower GI series; barium enema
~xray to exam large intestine
~PRE:NPO 8hours
~laxatives/enemas
~POST:fluids
endoscopy
~endoscope to view esophagus and stomach
~PRE:NPO 8hours
~informed consent
~V/S
~sedatives
~POST:NPO til gag reflex rtns
fecal fat test
~analyzes stool for presence of fat
~no alcohol
~high-fat diet 3days before and 3days after
~refridge stool
~doc meds
proctosigmoidoscopy
~light scope to view colon to canal
~PRE:bowel preps
~informed consent
~POST:doc iron intake
~check 4 bleeding
~V/S
~complications (perforation)
cholangiography
~dye injec to produce a radiographic picture of the biliary duct system, then xrayed
~PRE:high-fat diet 1day
~informed consent
~NPO after 2400
~allergies 2 seafood
~POST:injection site for bleeding
~V/S
~fluids
liver scan
~image of blood flow in the liver using an inject of radioisotope
~PRE:allergies
~informed consent
~POST:check 4 delayed allergic reaction
gastric analysis
~check acidity of gastric secretions aspirated through NG tube
~check 4 ulcers, pern anemia
~PRE:NPO after 2400
~no smoking 12hours
~no anticholinergics
~POST:V/S
ultrasonography
~echoes 4m sound waves to visualize body organs
blood chemistry tests
~analyze pt's blood
~doc meds
~check 4 bleeding
hematologic study
~analyze a blood sample for WBC, RBC, ESR, HCT, HGB, platelets
~doc meds
~check 4 bleeding
coagulation study
~lab test of blood sample that analyzes PT, INR, PTT
~doc med
~check 4 bleeding
liver biopsy
~removal of liver tissue w/needle
~PRE:NPO after 2400
~informed consent
~pos on L side during biopsy
~POST:check 4 bleeding/shock
~V/S
~check 4 s/s of shock
~pos pt on R lateral side 4 hemostasis for 2hrs
~bed rest 24hrs after biopsy
colonoscopy
~lighted scope to directly visualize the large intestine
~PRE:informed consent
~clear liq diet 2days before
~bowel preps day before
~POST:check 4 bleeding
~check 4 s/s of colon perforation
~NPO 2hours
~check 4 occult blood
~V/S
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
radiographic exam of hepatobiliary tree and pancreatic ducts using contrast medium and lighted scope
~PRE:informed consent
~NPO after 2400
~POST:check 4 resp depression
~check 4 urine retention
~assess gag reflex
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
~fluoroscopic exam of biliary ducts
~inject of contrast medium
~PRE:allergies to seafood
~informed consent
~check PT, INR, PTT
~NPO after 2400
~PRE:rest on side 6hours
~check 4 bleeding
~V/S
~NPO 2hours
paracentesis
~temp removal of fludi accumulated in peritoneum
~indicated when ventilation is impaired, abd discomf
~void immed b4
~during, pos sitting w/feet on stool
~fluid removed slowly over 30-90mins
~bedrest
~check 4 complications
pigment studies
~assess bilirubin levels
dye clearance
~liver's ability 2 detoxify substances
protein studies
~check protein synthesis by liver
alkaline phosphatase
~enzymes normally found in lover, released during liver damage
prothrombin time
~clotting process
blood ammonia
~liver's ability 2 synthesize protein byproducts
serum transaminase studies
~elev in liver dz
cholesterol studies
~produced by liver
~decr w/liver damage
~incr in bile duct obstruction
levin
~NG tube
~decompression of stomach
salem sump
~for continuous suctioning
miller-abbott
~intestinal suction
harris
~intestinal suction
cantor
~intestinal suction
ewald
~removal of secretions thru the mouth
sangstake-blakemore
~tx of esophageal varices
nasogastric tube feeding/irrigation
NI
~assess placement
~semi-fowler's
~check 4 residual
~nose/mouth care
~assess secretions
~use correct solution 4 irrigation
gastrostomy tube
NI
~anterior wall of stomach is sutured 2 abd wall
~tube is sutured in place by MD
total parenteral nutrition
~IV admin of hypertonic solution of glucose, nitrogen, & other nutrients 2 achieve tissue synthesis
~if pt cannot take food PO
~inability to use by GI
~excessive nutri needs (CA, burns, multi frac)
~NI:chest xray
~wt
~BS
~after 3hrs, check BS again
guiac test
~hemocult test
~check 4 blood in stool
~upper GI: stool is dark/yellow
~blood is reabsorb by S/L colon
~blood appears coffee ground
~lower GI: fresh red blood
~PRE:no ASA, NSAIDs, red meat 3days
cholyecystogram; gallbladder series
~tabs conjugated in liver, excr in bile, seen in film; outlines gallbladder
~PRE:check 4 allergies 2 iodine
~telopaque tabs 12hrs
~NPO 2400
~POST:low-fat diet
~poor visual: gallbladder dz