Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/209

Click to flip

209 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abdomino
celio
laparo
abdomen
ano
anus
appendico
appendix
bili
chole
bile
bucco
cheek
cheilo
lip
colo
colono
colon
cysto
bladder or sac
denti
teeth
docho
duct
duedeno
duodenum
entero
small intestine
esophago
esophagus
gastro
stomach
gingivo
gum
glosso
linguo
tongue
hepato
hepatico
liver
hernio
hernia
ileo
ileum
inguino
groin
jejuno
jejunum (empty)
litho
stone
oro
stomato
mouth
pancreato
pancreas
peritoneo
peritoneum
phago
eat or swallow
procto
anus and rectum
pyloro
pylorus (gatekeeper)
recto
rectum
sialo
saliva
sigmoido
sigmoid colon
steato
fat
-emesis
vomiting
oral cavity
cavity that receives food for digestion
salivary glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual
cheeks
lateral walls of the mouth
lips
fleshy strucutres surrounding the mouth
palate
structure that forms the roof of the mouth; it is divided into the hard and soft palate
uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
tongue
muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and held down by a band-like membrane known as the frenulum
gums
tissue covering the processes of the jaws
teeth
hard bony projections in the jaws that serve to masticate (chew) food
pharynx
throat; passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and air traveling to the larynx
esophagus
muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
sac-like organ that chemically mixes and prepares food received from the esophagus
cardiac sphincter
opening from the esophagus to the stomach
pyloric sphincter
opening of the stomach into the duodenum
small intestine
tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach
duodenum
first portion of the small intestine
jejunum
second portion of the small intestine
ileum
third portion of the small intestine
large intestine
larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
cecum
first part of the large intestine
vermiform appendix
worm like projection of the lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function- may serve to to resist infection (vermi = worm)
colon
portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum; identified by direction or shape
ascending colon
portion that extends upward from the cecum
transverse colon
portion that extends across from the asending colon
descending colon
portion that extends down from the transverse colon
sigmoid colon
portiong (resembling an s) that terminates at the rectum
rectum
distal (end) portion of the large intestine
rectal ampulla
dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal
anus
opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
feces
refuse; solid waste formed in the large intestine
defecation
evacuation of feces from the rectum
peritoneum
membrane surounding the entire abdominal cavity consisting of the parietal layer (lining the abdominal wall) and visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
peritoneal cavity
space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
omentum
a covering; an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other abdominal organs
liver
organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion
gall bladder
receptable that stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver
pancreas
gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where is mixes with bile to digest food
biliary ducts
ducts that convey bile, including hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts
hypochondriac regions
upper lateral regions beneath the ribs
epigastric region
upper middle region below the sternum
lumbar regions
middle lateral regions
umbilical region
region of the navel
inguinal regions
lower lateral groin regions
hypogastric region
region below the navel
anorexia
loss of appetite (orexia = appetite)
aphagia
inability to swallow
ascites
accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascos = bag)
buccal
in the cheek
constipation
infrequent of incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass
diarrhea
frequent loose or liquid stools
dyspepsia
indigestion
dysphagia
dificulty in swallowing
eructation
belch
flatulence
gas in the stomach or intestines
halitosis
bad breath
hematochezia
red blood in the stool
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver
hyperbilirubinemia
excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
icterus
jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, sclerea (white portion of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood.
melena
dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
nausea
sick in the stomach
steatorrhea
feces containg fat
sublingual
hypoglossal
under the tongue
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
sialoadenitis
inflammaiton of the salivary gland
parotitis
inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps
cheilitis
inflammation of the lip
glossitis
inflammation of the tonue
ankyloglossia
tongue-tie; a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, think frenulum
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
esophageal varices
swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially susceptible to the ulceration and hemorrhage
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflex disease
blackflow of stomach contents into the esophagus, often as a result of abrnomal function of the lower esophageal sphincter; causes burning pain in the esophagus
pyloric stenosis
narrowed condition of the pylorus
peptic ulcer disease
a sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gasrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with bacteria
gastric ulcer
ulcer located in the stomach
duodenal ulcer
ulcer located in the duodenum
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
ileitis
inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
colitis
inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon along with ulcerations
diverticulum
a by-way; an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract usually related to a lack of dietary fiber
diverticulosis
presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the bowel
divericulitis
inflammation of diverticula
dysentery
inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, blood stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendeix
hernia
protrusion of part of the stomach upward through the hiatal opening in he diaphragm
hital hernia
protrusion of part of the stomach upward through he hiatal opening in the diaphragm
inguinal hernia
protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layeres of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
incarcerate hernia
hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac causing an obstruction
strangulated hernia
hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous
umbilical hernia
protusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus
intussusception
prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part
volvulus
twisting of the bowel on inself, causing obstruction
polyposis
multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum with a high malignancy potential
polyp
tumor on a stalk
proctitis
inflammation of the rectum and anus
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum
hemorrhoid
swollen, twisted vein in the anal region
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatitis A
infectious inflammation of the liver caused the by hepatitis A virus, usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water
hepatitis B
infection inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatits B virus that is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
hepatitis C
inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus transmitted by exposure to infected blood
cirrhosis
chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue, most often caused by alcholoism or a nutritional deficiency
cholangitis
inflammation of the bile ducts
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
choelithiasis
presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
choledocholithiasis
presence of stones in the common bile duct
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
endoscopy
examination within a body cavity with a fleixble endoscope for diagnosis or treatment; used in the gastrointestinal ract to detect abnormalities and perform procedures such as biopsies, excision of lesions, dilations of narrowed areas, and removal of swallowed objects
esphagoscopy
exacmination of the esophagus with an esphagoscope
gastroscopy
examination of the stomach with a gastroscope
upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a flexible endoscope; also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy or panendoscopy
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ductsor the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
laparoscopy
examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope - often including interventional surgical procedures
peritoneoscopy
examination of the peritoneal cavity with a peritoneoscope often performed to examine the liver and obtain a biopsy speciman
capsule endoscopy
examination of the small intestine made by a tiny video camera placed in a capsule and swallowed; images are transmitted to a waist belt recorder and dowloaded ...
colonoscopy
examination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope
sigmoidoscopy
examination of the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope
proctoscopy
examination of rectum and anus with a proctoscope
nuclear medicine
radionuclide organ imaging
liver scan
scan of the liver made after injection of radioactive tracers into the bloodstream; used to detect tumors and functional abnormalities
upper GI series
x-ray of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after the patient has swallowed a contrast medium
barium swallow
x-ray of the esophagus only; often used to located swallowed objects
fluoroscopy
x-ray using a fluorescent screen to visualize structures in motion
small bowel series
x-ray exam of the small intestine generally done in conjunction with an upper GI series
lower GI series barium enema
x-ray of the colon after administration of an enema containng a contrast medium
cholangiogram
x-ray of the bile ducts; often performed during surgery
cholecystogram
x-ray of the gallbladder taken after oral ingestion of iodine
CT colonography
computed tomographic image of the colon performed as an alternative to traditional invasive colonoscopy; also known as virtual colonoscopy
sonography
ultrasound imaging
abdominal sonogram
ultrasound image of the abdoment to detect disease or deformity in organs and vascular structures
endoscopic sonography
endoscopic procedure using a sonographic transducer within an endoscope to examine a body cavity and make sonographic images of structures and tissues
biopsy
removal of tissue for microscopic pathological examination
endoscopic biopsy
removal of a speciman for biopsy during an endoscopic procedure
excisional biopsy
removal of an entire lesion for examination
incisional biopsy
removal of a portion of a lesion for examination
needle biopsy
percutaneous removal of a core specimen of tissue using a special hollow needle
stool culture and sensitivity
isolation of a stoll specimen in a culture medium to identify disease causing organisms; if present, the drugs to which they are sensitive are listed
stool occult blood study
chemical test of a stool speciman to detect the presence of blood; positive findings indicate bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract
bariatric surgery
treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and or intestines; includes restrictive techniques that limit the size of the stomach and malabsorptive techniques that limit the absorption of food
cheiloplasty
repair of the lip
glossectomy
excision of all or part of the tongue
glossorrhaphy
suture of the tongue
esophagoplasty
repair of the esophagus
gastrectomy
partial or complete removal of the stomach
gastric resection
partial removal and repair of the stomach
abdominocentesis
paracentesis
puncture of the abdoment for aspiration of fluid
laparotomy
incision into the abdomen
laparscopic surgery
abdominal surgery using a laparoscope
herniorrhaphy
hernioplasty
repair of a hernia
colostomy
creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wal to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions
anastomosis
union of two hollow vessels used in bowel surgery
ileostomy
surgical creation of an opening on the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ileal discharges; performed after removal of the colon
appendectomy
excision of a diseased appedix
polypectomy
excision of polyps
proctoplasty
repair of the anus and rectum
anal fistulectomy
excision of an anal fistula
hemorrhoidectomy
excisin of hemorrhoids
hepatic lobectomy
excision of a lobe of the liver
cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder through a laparoscope
cholelithotomy
incision for removal of gallstones
choledocholithotomy
incision of the common bile duct for extraction of gallstones
cholelithotripsy
crushing of gallstones
pancreatectomy
excision of the pancreas
gastric lavage
oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment
nasogastric intubation
insertion of a tub through the nose into the stomach for various purposes
antacid
drug that neutralizes stomach acid
antiemetic
drug that prevents or stops vommiting
antispasmodic
drug that decreases motility in the gastrointestinal tract to arrest spasm or diarrhea
cathartic
drug that causes movement of the bowels; also called a laxative