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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what solubilizes cholesterol and bilirubin?
bile acids AND lecithin
which stones are radiopaque?
pigment stones
cholesterol stones with calcification
mixed stones are radio_______
lucent
what cause pigmented stones?
RCB hemolysis, hemoglobinopathies
alcoholic cirrhosis
biliary infection
findings of Reye's syndrome?
fatty liver
hypoglycemia
coma
presents with associated polycythemia and hypoglycemia?
HCC
alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency can lead to...
HCC
ulcerative colitis is associated with what biliary tract condition?
primary sclerosing cholangitis
pruritis and xanthomas?
primary biliary cirrhosis
mitochondrial antibodies?
primary biliary cirrhosis
ascending cholangitis and bile lakes?
secondary biliary cirrhosis
Charcot's triad of cholangitis?
jaundice
fever
RUQ
can lead to secondary biliary cirrhosis?
primary sclerosing cholangitis
beading on ERCP?
PSC
conjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to defective liver excretion?
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
how do you treat Criggler-Najar Type I? Type II?
plasmapheresis and phototherapy
phenobarbital
associated with stress?
Gilbert's syndrome
Findings of Criggler-Najar Type I?
jaundice and kernicterus
how is urobilinogen formed?
directly from heme metabolism
or
converted from direct bilirubin in bile by gut bugs
direct bilirubin is excreted into...
urine and bile
what is acholuria?
absence of urine bilirubin.
characteristic of hemolytic jaundice
3 types of jaundice?
hepatocellular
obstructive
hemolytic
liver condition that results in CHF?
hemochromatosis
what happens to TIBC in hemochromatosis?
reduced
what does Prussian blue stain for?
iron
causes of liver cirrhosis
alcohol
hemochromatosis
Wilson's disease
autosomal recessive?
Wilson's disease
hemochromatosis
penicillamine is for treating...
Wilson's disease
Budd-Chiari is caused by...
polycythemia vera
pregnancy
hepatocellular carcinoma
sclerosis around central vein,
fatty change?
alcoholic hepatitis
other names for AST/ALT?
SGOT/SGPT
Peutz-Jehgers is not a risk factor for...
colorectal cancer
which chronic inflammatory bowel disease is more associated with colorectal cancer?
ulcerative colitis
apple-core lesion on Xray?
colorectal cancer
increased risk with Down syndrome?
duodenal atresia
Hirschsprung's disease
sigmoid colon?
most common site for diverticula
redundant mesentery-->volvulus
diverticulitis
what causes intussusception?
intraluminal mass
where do false diverticula occur?
where vasa recta perforate muscularis externa
associated with low fiber diets?
diverticulosis
colorectal cancer
diverticulosis is ___________
diverticulitis is ___________
bloody, painless
painful
complications include severe stenosis, toxic megacolon, colorectal carcinoma?
ulcerative colitis
ankylosing spondylitis and uveitis is associated with?
Crohn's disease
"string-sign" on barium swallow?
Crohn's disease
etiology of UC? of CD?
autommune for UC
infectious for CD
Virchow's and Krukenberg are from what cancer?
stomach
hypertrophy of Brunner's glands are seen in?
duodenal ulcer
achlorhydria
associated with stomach cancer
seen in Type A (fundal) chronic gastritis
coffee-ground emesis indicates..
acute (erosive) gastritis
affects the proximal small bowel only?
Celiac Sprue
PAS-positive macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria?
Whipple's disease
besides liver disease, AST is found in...
MI
enzyme marker for various liver diseases?
GGT
associated with Chagas' disease?
achalasia
Meissner's and Auerbach's in __________
Just Auerbach's in __________
Hirshsprung's
Achalasia
progressive dysphagia?
achalasia
defect causing indirect inguinal hernia?
failure of processus vaginalis to close
what is direct bilirubin?
conjugated to glucoronic acid
hydrolizes alpha-1,4 linkages to yeild disaccharides?
salivary amylase
disease of intestinal and renal amino acid reabsorption?
Hartnup's
what digests starch?
amylase
receptors on the parietal cell?
H2
M3
prostaglandin
where are short-chain FA absorbed?
colon
where is GIP made?
K cells of duodenum
what GI hormone is stimulated by all 3 nutrient classes?
GIP
increases insulin (oral glucose load absorbed more rapidly)?
GIP
where does secretin come from?
S cells of the duodenum
where does CCK come from?
I cells of the duodenum
where does gastrin come from?
G cells of the ANTRUM of stomach
what do phenylalanine and tryptophan do?
stimualte gastrin
parasympathetic innervation for salivation is via what?
glossopharyngeal n.
what lies outside the femoral sheath?
femoral n.
what does the femoral canal contain?
deep inguinal lymph nodes
defect in DNA repair?
familial non-polyposis syndrome
Turcot's syndrome?
colonic polyps and CNS tumors
what enzyme conjugates bilirubin?
UDP-glucoronyl transferase
which jaundice type causes increased urobilinogen?
hemolytic
what type of bilirubin is elevated in hepatocellular jaundice?
both conjugated and unconjugated
chronic transfusion can lead to...
hemochromatosis
triad of hemochromatosis?
micronodular cirrhosis
pancreatic fibrosis
skin pigmentation
phlebotomy to treat...
hemochromatosis
Mallory bodies are characteristic of...
alcoholic hepatitis
ALT>AST in...
viral hepatitis
false diverticula lack...
only __________ and _________ outpouch
muscularis externa
mucosa and submucosa
when does pyloric stenosis present?
2 weeks old
what enzyme indicates mumps?
amylase
dilatation of the vitelline duct?
omphalomesenteric cyst
how does Meckel's diverticulum present?
bleeding, intussusception, volvulus, obstruction near the terminal ileum
within first 2 years of life
what kind of hernia can be reduced by lying on the back?
indirect
actions of VIP?
relaxes smooth muscle
decreases acid secretion
stimulates bicarb
what does GIP do?
decrease gastrin
increase insulin
what do prostaglandins regulate?
decrease gastric acid secretion
benign mixed tumor of salivary glands?
pleomorphic adenoma
what's special about Brunner's glands?
they're the only GI submucosal glands
double bubble sign on x-ray?
duodenal atresia
what does the hepatoduodenal liagment contain?
hepatic a.
portal v.
common bile duct
What is Boerhaave's syndrome?
complete rupture of all 3 layers of the esophagus
presents as L pneumothorax
precursor to oral cancer?
leukoplakia